Chloroethane (other names – chloride ethyl, ethyl chloride) represents itself colourless gas, has a chemical formula C2H5Cl. Mixes up with ethyl alcohol and ethyl oxide, almost does not mix up with water. How it is possible to receive this substance?
1. There are two main industrial methods of synthesis of chloroethane: 1) By hydrochlorination of ethylene (eten).2) By ethane chlorination.
2. Now the second way is recognized as more perspective and economically reasonable. Reaction proceeds thus: C2H6 + Cl2 = C2H5Cl + HCl
3. As well as any standard reaction of halogenation of alkanes, it proceeds on the so-called "radical mechanism". To initiate its beginning, mix: alkane (in this case, ethane) – halogen (in this case, chlorine) should be subjected to intensive ultra-violet radiation.
4. Under the influence of light the molecule of chlorine breaks up to radicals. These radicals immediately enter interaction with ethane molecules, taking away from them hydrogen atom, as a result of it etilny radicals are formed • C2H5 which, in turn, destroy chlorine molecules, forming new radicals. That is there is some kind of "chain reaction".
5. Temperature increase increases ethane chlorination speed. However as "exit" of other chlorine-containing derivatives of ethane also increases that is undesirable, this reaction is carried out at low temperatures, for the greatest possible receiving a target product.