Ozone – one of types (modifications) of oxygen, with chemical formula O3. Under usual conditions represents itself gas of blue color and with a "sharp" characteristic smell. If to subject it to liquefaction, accepts dark-blue saturated color. The first mentions of ozone belong to 1785. Ozone – very unstable connection, and quickly turns into diatomic oxygen. The temperature is higher and pressure is lower, the this transition is carried out quicker. How it is possible to receive ozone?
1. The main industrial method – transmission of powerful spark electric discharge through oxygen or air. Synthesis, more precisely electrosynthesis, happens in "ozonizers". This method is based on ability of molecules of oxygen to break up to atoms under the influence of energy of electric discharge. Atomic oxygen, in turn, immediately connects to an oxygen molecule, turning into ozone. Respectively, this ozone, reacting with oxygen atoms, turns into molecular oxygen. Thus, reactions of education and disintegration of ozone practically ravnovesna and therefore an ozone exit as a product of reaction does not exceed 5 — 7%.
2. Much more concentrated ozone (from 30 to 60%) can be received by an electrolytic method, for example, electrolysis of oxychloride acid, but it is accompanied by great difficulties. It is enough to tell, as temperature of electrodes, and temperature of electrolyte has to be from-56 to-65 degrees. At similar electrolyses, there is a decomposition of ions and radicals according to the scheme: H2O + O2 = O3 + 2H + +2e-.
3. In laboratory practice a small amount of ozone is received by a photochemical method, under the influence of direct sunlight. Such ozonizers give vent very low ozona (about 0.1%, "working" with air, and 1% - with pure oxygen), but simple on a design and small-sized.