C6H12O6 fructose is the most widespread type of sugar of natural origin. In a free look it is present practically at all fruits and berries having sweet taste. Also fructose makes about a half of a dry part of honey.
It is carried to group of monosaccharides, and it represents the major natural sugar. Some compounds of fructose can be met in the form of natural products. The most important of them is sucrose, or ordinary sugar which molecules are collected from molecules of fructose and glucose.
The polysaccharides formed by fructose, for example, such as inulin and flein, play a large role in activity of plants since are for them reserves of nutrients. Until recently process of production of fructose was quite expensive and labor-consuming since for its production insulin was used. Now thanks to the science which stepped forward fructose is received by method of additional selection of sucrose.
In general, fructose is known to scientists more than hundred years. And its many useful properties are open rather recently, for example, its possibility of use in a diet of patients with diabetes. Long since fructose in a various look was included into the food consumed by the person. Long ago it is noticed that it is easily acquired by an organism, has no adverse effect on an organism and does not render by-effects.
Physical properties of fructose
Fructose represents the waterless crystals having the form of needles, temperature of its melting is about 102-106 degrees. Its molecular weight is equal 180.16, and specific – 1.6 g/cm3. High-calorie value is approximately equal to the caloric content of all other sugars, i.e. 4 kcal on 1 g. The ability to absorb water vapor from the environment is peculiar to fructose, and the concentrated structures it can keep moisture. Also fructose is easily dissolved in water and alcohol. In the conditions of temperature about 20 wasps saturated solution of fructose has concentration in 78.9% while concentration of solution of sucrose under the same conditions makes 67.1%, and glucose only of 47.2%. The viscosity of solution of fructose, on the contrary, is much lower, than at solutions of glucose and sucrose.
Use of fructose
Long time fructose was a rarity and therefore it was applied only in pharmacopoeian medicines or the people having diabetes. But lately it became the usual raw materials applied in the food industry. Being natural substance, fructose has many merits which are widely applied in production of various food. The most important of them are high degree of sweet, safety for health of teeth, lack of by-effects and contraindications, the good disintegration in the course of metabolism toning effect, ability to emphasize aromas, moreover a possibility of formation of aromatic substances, excellent solubility and small viscosity, influence on metabolism of alcoholic beverages, etc. Today fructose was widely used for production of medical medicines and dietary products.