To protect the building from the fires, different methods of prevention of the tragedy are used. The main device – the fire alarm which not only warns about ignition emergence but also makes attempts on suppression of the arisen center.
How does the fire alarm work?
The main destination of this system is in that at the first signs of ignition to notify on the incident, to transmit a signal to service on duty and to take emergency measures on suppression of the center to prevent distribution of a flame. The Fire Alarm System (FAS) is a certain electric control system which turns on sensors, transmission channels of signals, panels of control and the warning system. Carry to additional problems of such systems:
- remote activation of means of suppression;
- carries out a control system unblocking that is important for evacuation;
- signal transmission in additional control centers.
Installation of the fire alarm
Experts do not recommend to install so important equipment independently as even the insignificant mistake in installation can become the reason of tragic consequences. It is better to address experts who at first will develop the project of the alarm system, having considered the size and type of the building, an environmental condition and the available budget. The fire alarm is installed after the research of an object, accurate calculations and a marking. Only competent installation is the key to successful work. Choose the checked organizations.
Types of the fire alarm
Recently more often use an automatic system which is divided into three views:
- Threshold. It is used on objects where the risk of the fire – is minimum also in premises. The system included the announcer with an operation threshold which is established at the plant. The informational content of this fire alarm is low, the fire is found at late stages and it is necessary to carry out many works on installation of cables. The threshold system is available at the price.
- Address and polling. At a system there is a communication of the checkpoint with announcers. The device does not wait for change of the mode of the detector, and from time to time conducts survey of current state. The network is under construction on ring type, and use it at offices, shops, schools and so on.
- Address and analog. Such automatic fire alarm is the most optimal variant at which the decision on inclusion of the notification of the it is made by the control panel (IIMCP). Thanks to it the risk of false operations decreases and there is an opportunity to define the place of the center of ignition.
Service of the fire alarm
That Union of Right Forces ran smoothly, regular check of its correct work, diagnostics and maintenance is of great importance. The fitter and other competent organization can carry out these works for what the separate contract where all nuances of interaction register is signed with them. Maintenance of the fire alarm means the approval of technical regulations of check and control. Services in service include:
- implementation of monthly works;
- fight against the existing problems;
- replacement of the broken equipment;
- maintaining corresponding documentation;
- rendering technical help;
- development of recommendations to improve work of a system.
Check of the fire alarm
In maintenance time an inspection of serviceability of the main components of a system is surely carried out. An inspection has to be carried out at least two times a year as a result of which the statement that the Union of Right Forces works correctly is drawn up. If sensors of the fire alarm do not react, deviations in operation of the equipment are found or damage of wires, then address to installation contractor to fix problems. Visual inspection includes check:
- Compliances of the available devices with the project, serial numbers by the passport and brands of loops by certificates.
- Integrity of seals on the equipment, and still lack of mechanical damages of devices, sensors, annunciators and grounding.
- Protective equipment of the fire alarm and the correct arrangement of announcers are checked.
The main tests can be carried out with full check of a system for what imitate the fire, using special signals from the panel. Other option – random inspection for what to the chosen sensors bring the special device with the heating device or with the material imitating smoke. If the fire alarm worked at once, then check is considered passed. When the alarm system is switched-off from network, the system has to pass into the mode of emergency work, without shutdowns and failures.
Cost of the fire alarm
The sum which should be spent for the organization of a system depends on scale of the scheme, design features of the room, height of ceilings and specifics of the room. A part of the sum – costs of purchase of the equipment and if there is a wish to save, then choose devices of domestic production. The price of installation of the fire alarm depends on existence of automatic fire fighting, level of sensitivity of sensors and a way of the notification.
The fire-prevention alarm system – what is better?
For the choice of the best system it is recommended to be guided by the following professional advice:
- Choose several companies which provide services in sale, installation and service. Compare them, read responses and study information to choose suitable option.
- The fire-prevention alarm system should not be cheap as the producer could save on materials and technology of assembly that it does not give a security guarantee.
- The system has to have a reliable source of food that it did not fail at insignificant ignitions.
- Operation of the alarm system has to be simple and convenient that there were no problems. The control menu has to be intuitive.
- There has to be a guarantee from the producer.
The fire alarm for office
Surely the Union of Right Forces needs to be established at office if it is used as the working room and in the industrial purposes, in it is many flammable materials, computer and household appliances and if there are in it many employees. Smoke sensors of the fire alarm and other details of a system have to be reliable, have a wide cover zone, accuracy and good speed of work which has to be continuous. The fire alarm can be presented in three executions:
- Addressless. The system fixes the tragedy fact, but does not define the place of the center of ignition.
- Address. This version of the alarm system can be used in any rooms and even cellars. It defines existence of the fire and the place of ignition.
- Address and analog. Such the Union of Right Forces provides the best protection as gives information on the place of ignition, distribution of the centers of a flame and so on.
The fire alarm for the house
The main selection criterion is defined by availability of information what reaction speed depends on. For giving or a country house where people do not live on a constant basis, it is better to install the fire alarm with a possibility of wireless signal transmission about a problem to the owner of housing and on the control panel. It is possible to establish Union of Right Forces with the combined sensors reacting to different indicators and having a loud signal. The most suitable fire alarm for multi-storey buildings – address and analog with the control panel.
The fire alarm for the apartment
For protection of the apartment different options of Union of Right Forces can be used, for example, for small rooms not address alarm system and if the area big, then experts advise to stop on the address warning system will become good option. Recently the most popular fire alarm in the apartment – an address and analog system which reacts even to insignificant fluctuations of temperature. When choosing Union of Right Forces for the apartment consider such criteria: reaction speed, ease of service, appeal of the case and area of a controlled zone.
Actions at operation of the fire alarm
If the signal of ignition was heard, then it is necessary to work immediately:
- If the fire alarm worked, then it is necessary to define where the sensor worked.
- It is necessary to report about it to the person on duty of the Ministry of Emergency Situations, having specified the exact address.
- It is necessary to close windows, doors and to block ventilation that there was no access of oxygen to the ignition center.
- When the fire alarm worked, organize evacuation of people that there was no panic.
- If there is an opportunity without risk to take away valuable things and documents, then it can be done.
- All other operations have to be performed by fire crew or responsible people for fire safety.
It is necessary to understand how to switch-off the fire alarm if it was called not by the fire, and for example, power surge:
- The easiest way is to remove from the sensor the power supply, for example, the battery.
- If there is a centralized control panel, then it is possible to switch off a siren from it. For this purpose it can be necessary to type the special code.