Pine forest is chemical element III of group of a periodic system. It does not meet in the nature in a free look, on the earth's surface the pine forest concentrates in brines of the seas and lakes.
1. The pine forest represents gray, colourless or red crystal amorphous substance. On hardness it ranks second among all substances (after diamond). Pine forest is quite inert in the chemical relation, especially it concerns its crystal form. Substance passes into a plastic state at a temperature over 2000 wasps.
2. The natural pine forest consists of two isotopes, each of them is stable. Ten of its allotropic modifications are known, their education is defined by temperature at which the pine forest is received. Crystal lattices of all modifications are constructed of icosahedrons of elektronodefitsitny structures.
3. Pine forest does not react with acids which are not oxidizers. At alloyage with alkalis in the presence of air and also in interaction with mix of nitrate of potassium and its carbonate or with the melted sodium peroxide the pine forest forms borata.
4. At reaction with the majority of metals at high temperatures the pine forest forms borides, in its interaction with carbon receive pine forest carbides, and with silicon — pine forest silicides. Silicides represent crystal substances which do not decay water and also solutions of alkalis and acids, apply them as refractory materials and as materials for production of protective devices of nuclear reactors.
5. As the main method of allocation of a pine forest from mix use an otgonka from sour solutions in the form of bornometilovy air. At first air is hydrolyzed to orthoboric acid, then it is titrated alkali in the presence of a mannitol.
6. The pine forest can determine by blue-violet coloring by sarin or diaminoantrarufiny, also it is found on brown red color of turmeric paper.
7. Pine forest is the most important component of many heat resisting and corrosion-resistant alloys, its small additives increase the mechanical durability of steel. Addition of a pine forest in alloys of non-ferrous metals causes fineness of their structure, also sate with a pine forest a surface of steel products, so carry out borating for the purpose of improvement of corrosive properties.
8. The pine forest and its alloys are used as neutron-absorbing materials by production of the regulating cores of nuclear reactors and also as semiconductors of thermoresistors for converters of thermal energy in electric and for counters of thermal neutrons. In the form of fibers it is used as sealant of composite materials.