All living organisms consist of proteins. In a human body muscles, tendons, glands, bones, hair, nails are formed of them. Proteins are synthesized from amino acids. Amino acids actively participate in all major processes in an organism, growth and mass of the person and also his mental state and intellectual activity depends on them.
The human body uses for creation of all types of proteins of 20 amino acids. They are divided into three groups:
1. Replaceable – are synthesized in an organism from other components. Carry the following amino acids to them:
- asparagin; - asparaginic acid; - alanine; - glyutaminovy acid; - proline; - serrin.2. Irreplaceable amino acids: are not synthesized in an organism and their receipt with food is necessary. Irreplaceable for the person are: - valine (contains in meat, grain, mushrooms, dairy products, soy, peanut); - a histidine (contains in a tuna, a salmon, pork tenderloin, chicken breast, soy, peanut, lentil); - an isoleucine (contains chicken meat, eggs, fish, lentil, a rye, soy, a liver); - a leucine (contains in fish, meat, brown rice, the majority of seeds); - a lysine (contains in fish, dairy products, meat, wheat); - methionine (contains in meat, milk, fish, eggs, beans); - threonine (contains in eggs, dairy products, nuts) - tryptophane (contains in bananas, dried dates, sesame, pine nuts, yogurt, cottage cheese, fish, turkey); - phenylalanine (contains in fish, beef, chicken meat, soy, cottage cheese, milk).3. Conditional and irreplaceable - mostly are synthesized by an organism, but at big physical activities or diseases are developed in insufficient quantities. Carry to such amino acids: - arginine; - glutamine; - glycine; - tyrosine; - cysteine. The role of amino acids is most important for athletes. They in addition use complexes of amino acids, especially irreplaceable, for recovery of muscles after loading as these substances are soaked up quicker, than proteins. The moment of high concentration of amino acids is very important as it serves as the catalyst of growth of muscle tissue (anabolic state). And on the contrary, at a lack of amino acids, the organism begins to decompose the existing muscle fibers to amino acids (catabolic state). Amino acids are produced in the tableted, powder and liquid form. All of them are identical by efficiency. Amino acids practically do not apply Injektsionno as such form of reception has big risk of complications and any advantages before tablets. Isolates and concentrates of serumal, egg, meat and soy proteins are a source of amino acids. Amino acids of this kind have the fullest amino-acid profile – availability of all 20 amino acids in proportions, optimum for growth of muscles. For athletes release three main types of amino acids - the VSAA complex, full amino-acid complexes and the isolated amino acids. The Branched-Chain Amino Acids – is translated as "amino acid with a branched chain". It comprises splinters of proteinaceous chains. Feature of this complex is very fast digestibility. It can be used by an organism as fuel when carbohydrate stocks are exhausted. At high-intensity physical activities during the long period the organism begins to decompose proteins and to consume VSAA to compensate a lack of energy. Additional reception of a complex allows to keep the high level of amino acids throughout all training. Carry three amino acids to VSAA - valine, a leucine and an isoleucine. Full amino-acid complexes contain the most balanced set of replaceable and irreplaceable amino acids. Speed of digestion of these additives can be different, it depends on raw materials. There are complexes which are acquired quickly, and some long-playing additives accept for the night to improve night recovery of muscles. The isolated amino acids is a glutamine, arginine and a carnitine. They can separately be applied and be a part of complexes. Glutamine promotes production of hormone of growth, interferes with splitting of muscle tissue, improves immunity. Arginine is necessary for formation of nitrogen oxide which promotes the best filling of muscles blood therefore their volume increases and the endurance of an organism increases. Also glutamine participates in healing of wounds and promotes removal of slags. The carnitine accelerates exchange processes, increases working capacity and participates in process of combustion of fat. For improvement of properties of sports additives the producers enrich them with various components: vitamins, minerals, enzymes, vegetable sterols.