In general the linguistics is engaged in learning human language (Xing. linguistics and linguistics). In this scientific discipline are allocated: the private linguistics studying separate language or group of the related, for example, Slavic; the general linguistics studying the language nature, and applied linguistics which solves practical problems of native speakers, for example, machine translation.
1. Now the linguistics includes a set of sections and subsections which investigate a language system from various points of view, studying vocabulary, grammar, phonetics, morphology, etc. Language is investigated in aspects of anthropology (a human factor – history, life, traditions, culture), a kognitivizm (ratio of language and consciousness), pragmatism, etc.
2. The lexicology conducts a research in the field of various language layers in a single language, for example, phraseological structure of language – a proverb, a saying, set expressions, etc. Separately are considered a professional slang – terms and a slang of separate subcultures and population groups – prison, youth, etc. The lexicology is engaged in the language phenomena, such as synonimy, antonymy, homonymy and other. All this unites the general term – dictionary structure of language.
3. The lexicology is very closely connected with stylistics which study generally not single words and expressions, and functional application of language, marking out features of language statements. The stylistics investigate language of politicians, journalists, writers, physicians and representatives of other professions. Scientists look for answers to a question, than language differs from an oral and written language, in aspect of style. The stylistics indirectly serve the educational purposes, showing expressive language means and explaining ways of their application. Thus, the stylistics adjoin to applied discipline – the standard of speech.
4. In the separate section of linguistics the grammar is allocated. The purpose of the section is studying a system of language. Problems of grammar include the description of ways of word formation, inducement, conjugation of verbs, formation of times, etc. These tasks cause emergence of two subsections of grammar: syntax and morphology. The syntax investigates laws of creation of the offer, a combination of words in a phrase. The morphology studies abstract units of language under the name "morpheme" which are not independent, and are a part of a word and most often contain a lexical meaning. Morphemes in all their variety perform functions of word formation, shaping and coordination. For example, waters-waters and; water; water carrier, etc.
5. The phonetics represents the separate section of linguistics which is engaged in studying sounding of language – mechanisms of formation of sounds (articulation), rules of sounding and a combination of vowels and consonants.
6. It is natural that spelling – a division of science about spelling and a punctuation, about rules of the use of punctuation marks.