In the periodic table of Mendeleyev there are many chemical elements with various chemical properties. The lightest gas among them is hydrogen – the first element which in the table is designated by a symbol H. This gas is widespread in the environment – what its history and what is represented by properties of hydrogen?
Hydrogen is translated from Latin as "generating water". This colourless light gas can become combustible and explosive if to connect it to oxygen or air. Hydrogen is not toxic and is easily dissolved in ethanol and such metals as platinum, iron, nickel, titanium and palladium. For the first time in interaction of metals with acids the scientists noted release of hydrogen still at 16-17 centuries when the chemistry as science, only arose.
Hydrogen has three isotopes with own names – protium, a deuterium and radioactive tritium.
In 1766, hydrogen was investigated by the English chemist and the physicist Henry Cavendish who called this gas combustible air which when burning emitted water. In 1783 the French chemist Antoine Lavoisier and the engineer Jacques Meunier by means of special gasometers carried out synthesis of water from hydrogen. Then scientists spread out water vapor to atoms, using the heated iron therefore it was revealed that "combustible air" can be received from water which part it is.
Hydrogen in the Universe
The lightest gas is the most widespread chemical element in the Universe – its share makes 88.6% of all atoms. The main part of interstellar gas and stars consists of hydrogen. In the conditions of enormous space temperatures hydrogen can exist only in the form of plasma whereas the interstellar space allows it to form clouds of separate atoms, ions and molecules. These molecular clouds significantly differ on temperature, the sizes and density. In earth crust hydrogen is the tenth in prevalence element – its mass fraction in it makes only 1%. The role of the lightest gas in the nature is defined not by(with) the weight, but number of atoms which share – 17% among other elements. Hydrogen is in the second place after oxygen from its 52% of atoms therefore the value of hydrogen in chemical terrestrial processes is not less high, than value of oxygen. However, unlike the air giving life which exists on the planet both in free, and in the connected state almost all terrestrial hydrogen represents connections. In the form of the simple substance which is composition of the atmosphere it is only in very small quantity - 0.00005%. Also hydrogen is as a part of almost all organic matter. It can be found in all living cells where on number of atoms about 63% fall to its share.