The Russian scientist Vernadsky opened that role which living organisms play in processes of activity of the planet in the works. He created the whole doctrine which characterizes the biosphere as area where live substance exists and functions.
1. Vernadsky showed interrelation between activity processes even of microscopic organisms and processes of disintegration of strong breeds, turnover of substances, change of water and air planetary covers and also top layers of a lithosphere. The biosphere in a modern concept is presented by the atmosphere (25 km from the earth), the hydrosphere (11 km deep into to the ocean floor), a lithosphere (up to the temperature of +105 degrees Celsius that it is equal to about 5 km).
2. The biosphere is the "live cover of the earth" presented by all living organisms, products received thanks to them and substances, cumulative with them. At the same time in it there are also lifeless elements.
3. All substances are presented in liquid, firm or gaseous states. The moisture demanded for processes of activity of organisms contains everywhere – both in air, and in water, and even in solid substances, it is a conductor and the catalyst of those mechanisms in which energy of sunlight, wind and all terrestrial is involved.
4. "Live substance" is a community of all live which percent is not big at all - about 0.01% of all volume of the biosphere, but it is the most important element of the biosphere. Property of living organisms to master and occupy free space, to show activity contrary to operating forces, ability to adapt to change of external conditions, vital stability and fast decomposition of dead flesh provide natural updating of the planet. The living organism arises only from a living organism and is replaced by generations, carrying out the set biological role. So, plants turn carbon dioxide into oxygen, decompose dead fossils, thereby creating the soil, and organic matter is laid in layers of minerals, aerobic and anaerobic organisms participate in oxidation-reduction processes.
5. All live has property to absorb and emit gases, so, thanks to activity of organisms, biogenous substance is created. All this deposits of the earth are limestones, coal, minerals, oil, peat.
6. Bioinert substance is represented the inorganic substances received as a result of joint activity – the gases dissolved in air and also manganese and iron ores belong here.
7. Inert substance is those substances which were created without intervention of a living organism and are not present at them. All organisms on the earth lead existence and development, closely interacting with inanimate nature. Therefore under a concept the biosphere not only all also get live, but also all environment of their dwelling.