What is dissociation of salts

What is dissociation of salts

Understand process of disintegration of the substance carrying electric current on ions as the term "electrolytic dissociation". This process can take place both in solutions, and in substance fusions.

Acids, the bases, salts are exposed to dissociation. The majority of salts are strong electrolytes. It means that their solutions or fusions well carry electric current, thanks to formation of a large amount of charged particles - ions.

What mechanism of dissociation of salts in solutions or fusions

Present what will be with table salt well familiar to all people if its crystals to melt or throw into water. This substance has structure of an ionic crystal lattice. At fusion thermal energy will lead to the fact that fluctuations of ions in knots of a lattice will repeatedly amplify therefore communications between the next ions will begin to collapse. There will be free ions. And this process at continuation of heating will continue before total destruction of a crystal lattice. The similar mechanism of destruction will be also at dissolution of crystals of table salt in water, only instead of thermal energy the water molecules kind of "stretching" crystals on separate particles work here.

For the first time the theory of electrolytic dissociation was put forward by two chemists – Arrhenius and Ostvald at the end of the 19th century. By means of dissociation describe properties of salts and also the bases and acids. Sour and main salts pass dissociation in steps, for example, of KHSO4 =K^+ + HSO4^-

What features of dissociation of salts

At dissociation of salts, positively charged cations of metals (or an ammonium cation) and also negatively charged cations of the acid remains are formed. Process of dissociation goes depending on what salt is exposed to dissolution or fusion (average, sour or the main). If salt average (that is, formed by acid in which molecules all cations of hydrogen are replaced with metal cations, or ammonium), dissociation occurs according to such schemes, in one stage: КNO3=K^ ++ ++ SO4^2-Кислые and the main salts dissociate NO3^-Na2SO4=2Na^ in several stages. Sour salt (that is formed by acid which cations of hydrogen are replaced not completely) at first loses a metal ion, and then the hydrogen cation is chipped off. For example: NaHSO4=Na^ ++ HSO4^-HSO4^-=H^ ++ SO4^2-У of the main salts (that is formed by alkalis at which are not completely replaced a hydroxyl group), at first are chipped off the acid remains, and then ОН^-ions. For example: Cu(OH)Cl = Cu(OH) ^ ++ Cl^-Cu(OH) ^ + = Cu^2 ++ OH^-

Author: «MirrorInfo» Dream Team