The geophysics is a complex of sciences which by means of physical methods explore the structure of Earth. In a broad sense the geophysics studies physics of firm Earth (cloak, earth crust, a firm internal and liquid external kernel), physics of the atmosphere (climatology, meteorology, an aeronomy) and also physics of oceans, underground waters and a surface water of sushi (rivers, lakes, ices).
One of the sciences making this complex is the prospecting geophysics studying the structure of Earth. Its main objective: search and specification of the structure of deposits of minerals, identification of prerequisites for their education. Researches are conducted on the land, in the water area of the seas, fresh reservoirs and oceans, in wells, from space and from air.
Owing to the high efficiency, low cost, reliability and speed of work the prospecting geophysics is an important component of prospecting process. The main methods of prospecting geophysics are: seismic exploration, electroinvestigation on an alternating and direct current, a magnetic exploration, a gravirazvedka, geophysical surveys of wells, radiometry, nuclear geophysics and a teplometriya.
Seismic exploration is a section of prospecting geophysics which includes methods of studying the structure of Earth which cornerstone the excitement and registration of elastic waves is. Special devices – seismoreceivers which will transform fluctuations of soil particles to an electric signal are used to registration of fluctuations of these waves by researchers. Information obtained as a result of researches is displayed on schedules which are called seismographic records. The structure of earth crust is represented on special cards by which places of possible congestions of minerals are determined. Gravirazvedka is called the geophysical method which studies the changes of acceleration of gravity connected with changes of density of geological bodies. This method is actively applied in the course of the regional researches of earth crust, at identification of deep tectonic violations and search of minerals. Experts use gravity meters to carrying out a gravirazvedka – special devices which measure acceleration of gravity. The magnetic exploration as one more component of geophysics, is applied for search of mineral deposits. It is carried out in the form of land, aero magnetic or sea shooting. On the basis of the obtained data the card of magnetic field containing schedules or isolines is under construction. On it there can be areas with the quiet field and the magnetic anomalies which are characterized by the local indignations caused by heterogeneity of magnetic properties of rocks. Methods of electroinvestigation help to study parameters of a geological section. Indicators of constant electric or variation electromagnetic field are for this purpose measured. The research by method of the caused polarization can be an example of electroprospecting actions. Besides prospecting geophysics, there is also a physics of the atmosphere. The meteorological stations disseminated through all Earth serve for drawing up short-term and long-term weather forecasts. Except the envelope of air around the Earth, the geophysics studies also its water cover – the World Ocean and also physics of the sea. Here questions of currents in the ocean, inflows and otliva are investigated, the salinity of water, etc. is studied.