Minerals are the natural mineral formation of inorganic and organic origin used in the sphere of production of goods. Now more than 200 types of mineral resources are got.
Classification of minerals
There are several classifications of mineral resources. On physical properties allocate firm mineral formations (various ores, coal, granite, salts), liquid (oil, waters) and gaseous (gases, methane, helium).
By origin minerals subdivide into sedimentary, metamorphic and magmatic.
Proceeding from the sphere of use, distinguish combustible resources (natural gas, coal, peat, oil), ore (ores of rocks) and nonmetallic (sand, clay, limestone, sulfur, potash salts). Precious and ornamental stones stand separate group.
Modern search of mineral resources is based not only on use of the latest equipment and sensitive devices, but also on scientific forecasts. The scientific forecast is based on knowledge of communications of a geological structure with conditions of formation of minerals. There are several ways of production of mineral resources. At an open way rocks get in pits. It is an economic, but not eco-friendly method as the thrown pits can become the reason of formation of soil erosion. The open method gets the minerals which are on the Earth's surface or lying superficially in subsoil. Usually it is limestone, sand, chalk, peat, iron and copper ores, some types of coal. The solid minerals which are deeply get by means of underground mines. Most often so get coal. The mine way is considered the most unsafe for life of workers. Liquid and gaseous minerals (oil, underground waters, natural gas) get by means of boreholes, sometimes by means of mines. On a number of fields apply a combination of ways of production. The choice of a way is defined, mainly, by geological conditions of bedding of minerals and economic calculations. All new ways of production of mineral resources are constantly developed. But it is impossible to forget that ischerpayema minerals therefore it is necessary to spend them more economically and reasonably. For this purpose it is necessary to seek for decrease in losses of resources at their production, to try to obtain fuller extraction from breed of all useful properties, to pay bigger attention to search of new, more perspective fields.