Science, being one of forms of cognitive activity, it is aimed at search and development of the reliable knowledge of the world organized systemically. In this sense it differs from the ordinary knowledge dealing with daily experience and differing in superficial character.
1. The science is beyond ordinary knowledge. It represents a way of theoretical comprehension of the most deep, intrinsic characteristics of the phenomena observed in the nature and society. Activity in the sphere of science gives to society the system of knowledge, opening objective laws of reality and finding the reasons of the phenomena. One of instruments of scientific knowledge of the world – system thinking.
2. Scientific knowledge unites in a system of which steady interrelations between its parts are characteristic. Elements of science it is considered to be concepts, laws, hypotheses, concepts and theories. The science differs in existence of structure of proofs, strict logic of creation of a thought and validity of the assumptions. The thought of the researcher moves from simple to difficult, from abstract to more concrete and detailed.
3. In modern understanding science – the system including a set of the interconnected disciplines. Their number as science theorists counted, makes several thousands. All scientific disciplines can be divided into two big groups: fundamental sciences and applied disciplines. This division has conditional character as between the theory and its practical embodiment there is close connection.
4. The purpose of fundamental science – obtaining the most general objective knowledge of the different parties of reality outside the context of urgent needs of the person and society. Traditionally refer mathematics, natural, humanitarian and social sciences to this category. They create the base of a system of knowledge of the world and allow to describe its contents theoretically.
5. Applied scientific disciplines pursue more utilitarian and practical aims. They are aimed at direct use of the found theoretical principles in daily and production activity. Examples of such sciences: applied mechanics, cybernetics, technology of machines and mechanisms, metallurgy, nuclear power. In each of these disciplines the fundamental scientific principles gain pronounced practical value.
6. In modern science two trends are accurately traced. One of them is connected with division of a system of scientific knowledge into narrower areas having a specific object of research. Other trend consists in aspiration of separate sciences to integration, association into large complexes. The uniting role in this process is played by philosophy which theoretical provisions create a methodological basis for basic and applied researches.