What is organic matter

What is organic matter

Organic matter is a separate class of chemical compounds with an obligatory component in the form of carbon. The exception is made: carbides, carbon oxides, cyanides and coal acid – they are not included into group of organic compounds.

The term "organic matter" appeared in those days when the chemistry just arose, in east exercises, in Aristotelean classicism, in Hippocrates's doctrine. Were understood as organic matter such which belong to the kingdom of animals and plants. Under inorganic substances – belonging to the kingdom of lifeless things. The strong belief took place that organic matter cannot be created from inorganic that, however, was disproved in the 19th century.

Properties of organic compounds

Organic compounds – the biggest class of chemical compounds: now them there are slightly less than 27 million (according to other data – more than 30 million). The reason of their so big variety – ability of carbon to create chains of atoms and high stability of communications between atoms in carbon communication. High valency of carbon (IV) allows it to create steady connections with other atoms. At the same time communications can be not only single, but also two - and triple (that is double and threefold) that allows to create substances with linear, flat and volume structures.

Organic matter represents a basis of existence of living organisms, is a basis of food of the person, animals and plants, is widely used as raw materials for many types of the industry.

In geology organic matter is understood as the connections which directly or indirectly arose from a living organism, from products of its activity. They are an obligatory component in waters, the atmosphere, precipitation, soils and breeds. Also they can be in firm, liquid and gaseous states.

Classification of organic compounds

In organic compounds there is the, internal classification. Proteins, lipids, nucleinic acids and carbohydrates are considered as classical organic compounds. Their distinctive feature is availability of nitrogen, oxygen, hydrogen, sulfur and phosphorus. Separate classes are elementoorganichesky and metalloorganic connections. The first represent compounds of carbon with the elements which are not listed above. The second – compounds of carbon with metals.

Organic chemistry

Organic chemistry – the section of chemistry studying organic matter, their structure and properties, technology of their synthesis. Up to the 70th years of the 20th century Germany was the leader in the field of researches of organic matter. Moreover, the organic chemistry was considered as purely German science and still German chemical terminology is accepted in many developed countries.

Author: «MirrorInfo» Dream Team