What is oxides, hydroxides and salts

What is oxides, hydroxides and salts

One of the main in chemistry are 2 concepts: "simple substances" and "complex substances". The first are formed by atoms of one chemical element and are subdivided into nonmetals and metals. Oxides, hydroxides, salts are classes of complex substances, or the chemical compounds consisting of atoms of different chemical elements.

Oxides

These are the complex chemicals binary on structure as consist of two components, one of which oxygen in oxidation level-2. The nomenclature is under construction of the word "oxide" and the name of an element which is a part it substances. On chemical properties can be salt-forming and indifferent (not forming salt). It is possible to carry to the first acid (oxides of phosphorus, sulfur, carbon), the main (calcium, copper) or amphoteric (zinc, aluminum). Indifferent oxides do not show the properties mentioned above and earlier were called indifferent. However they can enter chemical reactions too. Among such oxides there are, for example, nitrogen oxides.

The majority of acid oxides are presented by gases, some liquids, in their structure nonmetals. And here the main are more often solid substances, crystal structure, consist of oxygen and metal. The most widespread of oxides is water. Chemical properties: react with acids, hydroxides and water.

Hydroxides

Carry the inorganic substances having in structure to them – IT (hydroxyl) group. In classification are similar to oxides and are divided depending on chemical properties into acid, the main and amphoteric. Soluble hydroxides in water are called alkalis, they have the lowest rn and consist of monovalent metal and – IT is groups. With increase in number of hydroksi-groups and valency of metal the solubility falls, and the value rn increases. On physical properties hydroxides firm. Application for hydroxides is found in production of lime, accumulators, washed. For example, when using the GAME soap will be liquid and if to take NaOH, then to firm. Chemical properties: with acids form salts, with salts react only at volatility or insolubility of a product.

Salts

These are also difficult connections, their structure included atom of metal and the acid rest. They are formed by neutralization reactions (interaction of acid and the basis about receiving salt and water). If in an acid molecule one of ions of hydrogen is replaced on metal, then salt is considered sour and if it happens to hydroksi-group, then salt the main. On physical properties they are solid crystal substances. The most known salt – NaCl. It is applied almost everywhere in the food industry and is an integral part of a diet of the person. Chemical properties: interact with strong acids, with alkalis form insoluble salt or the basis, stronger metals (in an electrochemical row) force out from them weak metal, at insolubility of one of products of salt react with salts.

Author: «MirrorInfo» Dream Team


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