The kingdom - the step of classification of species following after the domain. At the moment scientists allocate 8 kingdoms - hromist, the Archean, protests, viruses, bacteria, mushrooms, plants and animals, at the same time in the scientific environment disputes on to what kingdom any given types belong continue.
History of classification of living organisms
Originally people divided all wildlife into animals and plants. Such classification is reflected even in Aristotle's works. Even Karl Linney is the founder of modern classification of types living in the 18th century still divided living organisms only into the kingdom of plants and the kingdom of animals.
In the middle of the 17th century unicells were open, originally distributed them on two known kingdoms and only in the 19th century allocated for them the certain kingdom - Protistov.
After there was an electronic microscope, became possible in detail to study the smallest organisms. Scientists found out that some of them have a kernel, and others are not present, it was offered to divide all living organisms on this sign. The modern kingdomswildlife system was created in 1969 when Robert Whittaker suggested to divide organisms into kingdoms on the basis of the principle of their food.
Robert Whittaker allocated the first mushrooms to the certain kingdom.
Kingdom of Plants
To this kingdom carry multicellular autotrophic organisms which cages have the strong cover which is usually consisting of cellulose. Plants will be divided into the subkingdom of the simplest plants and the subkingdom of the higher plants.
Kingdom of Animals
To this kingdom carry multicellular heterotrophic organisms, they differ in independent mobility, food mainly by means of swallowing food. Cages of such organisms usually have no dense wall.
Kingdom of Mushrooms
Mushrooms are multicellular saprofita, that is organisms which eat at the expense of a pererabatyvaniye of dead organic chemistry. They differ in the fact that as a result of their activity there is no excrement left. Mushrooms breed disputes. In the kingdom allocate the subkingdom of mushrooms and the subkingdom of miksomitset, scientists argue on whether it is worth carrying the last to the kingdom of Mushrooms.
Kingdom of Bacteria
To the kingdom of Bacteria carry unicells which have no full-fledged kernel. There are bacteria autotrophs and bacteria heterotrophs. Usually bacteria are mobile. As bacteria have no kernel, carry them to the domain of prokariot. All bacteria have a dense wall of a cage.
Organisms in which cages there is a kernel, most often monocelled. Organisms get to the kingdom Protistov by the residual principle that is when they cannot be carried to other kingdoms of organisms. Seaweed and protozoa carry to protests.
Kingdom of Viruses
Viruses are on border between live and inanimate nature, these are noncellular formations which represent a set of difficult molecules in a fibrous casing. Viruses can be reproduced, only being in living cell of other organism.
A small amount of organisms - some seaweed, several gribopodobny organisms - have 2 kernels as a part of the cages. They were allocated to the certain kingdom only in 1998.
The first the Archean were found in geothermal sources
The simplest doyaderny unicells which appeared on Earth some of the first, they are adapted to live not in oxygen, and in the methane atmosphere therefore they are found in extreme environments.