Modern ecology – system science which has a many-tier design where each of "floors" leans on a number of traditional disciplines and the scientific directions. The feature of modern ecology is that from traditional biological science it turned into a wide cycle of knowledge displayed in chemistry, physics, geography and many other scientific spheres.
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1. Speaking about modern ecology, it is worth highlighting that she grew up from traditional bioecology in many-sided integrated science. Some scientists note that it became the whole philosophy of survival of the person. The modern ecology continues to be based on biogeographical knowledge, but at judgment of environmental problems and identification of communications between them it attracts knowledge practically of all other sciences.
2. Ecological activity is a basis of any spheres of human activity today, beginning from power and production, finishing with philosophy and religion. All decisions which are to a degree connected with use of natural or human resources moreover – with intervention in the processes which are taking place in the biosphere should be accepted taking into account the next and remote environmental impacts.
3. The main subject of researches of new ecology - interrelations of organisms and their groups, live and lifeless components of ecosystems and also specifics of influence of natural and anthropogenic factors for work of the biosphere in general.
4. The range of the tasks facing ecology of the second millennium extended. First, the modern ecology has to investigate the general condition of the biosphere, conditions of its formation and the reasons of changes under the influence of various factors; to predict dynamics of a condition of the biosphere in space and time. Secondly, scientists are faced by a task to develop taking into account new ecological laws of a way of harmonization of relationship of human society and the nature and also to keep abilities of the biosphere to self-regulation and self-recovery.
5. Because of expansion of human activity and strengthening of its negative impacts on the nature various directions in the sphere of applied ecology began to develop actively. Each of these directions has the specifics, the methods and scales of researches. Connecting together data which can be received in interaction of these directions, it is possible to develop and implement the whole programs for rational environmental management at the global level, to create competent environmental policy both on regional, and at the international level, to define tactics and the strategy of the balanced development of mankind, to keep the biosphere and life on the planet and also to develop nano - and biotechnologies, to introduce new technologies in power or industrial production.