The cause of electrostatic tension is in the physical laws of electrodynamics describing different behavior of charges in electric or magnetic fields.
It is required to you
- The textbook in physics, a pencil, the sheet of paper.
1. Read in the textbook in physics that is represented by dielectrics. It is known that dielectric substances do not carry electric current, however the phenomenon of formation of electrostatic tension is connected with these substances.
2. To understand an essence of the phenomenon of electrostatic tension, remember situations in which you observed this phenomenon. A standard example of this effect is the case when the person takes off from himself, say, a woolen sweater, and on his body run electric discharges. Sparks of these categories are especially well noticeable in night-time.
3. Draw on the sheet of paper two environments divided by some line which is limit of the section of these environments how represent two environments when studying light refraction. Every Wednesday will represent some dielectric.
4. Represent in every Wednesday schematically dielectric atoms. In order that to make it, remember in what feature of the internal structure of dielectrics. Unlike metals, dielectrics have no free charges capable to move freely in substance space. The electrons located at the last power levels of atom of dielectric are strictly connected with a kernel and are not capable to participate in conductivity. However it is worth noticing that electrons of the last level are connected with a kernel much more weakly, than the others. Dispose in the drawing an orbit of electrons of the last level of atoms closely to limit of the section.
5. Present now that two environments drawn with you move relatively each other. In this situation, first of all, electrons of the last levels in each environment with each other come to contact. As these electrons are connected less strictly with a kernel, than others, some of them pass from one environment into another. It leads to the fact that in one environment the electronegative potential, and in another - electropositive accumulates.
6. Pay attention that "throwing" of electrons in another comes from one environment in one direction. It is caused by the fact that dielectrics of two environments have various structure of outer sheaths of atom. In order that it was possible to observe is electrostatic tension, it is necessary that atoms of one of dielectrics had much bigger quantity of electrons in an external orbit, than atoms of other dielectric. Then transition of electrons will have the unidirectional character.