Despite great achievements in the field of physics and astronomy, there are many phenomena which essence is up to the end not opened. Mysterious black holes, all information on which has only theoretical character belong to such phenomena and cannot be checked in the practical way.
Whether there are black holes?
Even before emergence of the theory of relativity by astronomers the theory about existence of black funnels was stated. After the publication of the theory of Einstein the question of gravitation was reconsidered and in a problem of black holes the new assumptions appeared. To see this space object it is unreal, it absorbs the whole world getting to its space. Scientists prove existence of black holes, being guided by the analysis of the movement of interstellar gas and a trajectory of movements of stars.
Formation of black holes leads to change around them space-time characteristics. Time as if contracts under the influence of huge gravitation and slows down. The stars which appeared on the way of a black funnel can evade from the route and even to change the direction of the movement. Black holes absorb energy of the star double, than also prove.
How does the black hole look?
Information concerning black holes mostly has hypothetical character. Scientists study them on their impact on space and radiation. It is not possible to see black holes in the Universe, they absorb the whole world getting to nearby space. From special satellites the x-ray image of black objects on which the bright center which is a source of radiation of beams is visible was made.
How black holes are formed?
The black hole in space is the certain world which has the unique characteristics and properties. Properties of space holes are caused by the reasons of their emergence. Concerning emergence of black objects there are such theories:
- They are result of the collapses happening in space. It can be collision of large space bodies or explosion of supernovas.
- They arise owing to weighting of space objects at preservation of their sizes. The reason of such phenomenon is not defined.
The black funnel is the object in space having rather small size with a huge weight. The theory of a black hole says that each space object can potentially become a black funnel if as a result of any phenomena it loses the sizes but to keep weight. Scientists even speak about existence of a set of black microholes – tiny space objects with rather big weight. Such discrepancy of weight and size leads to strengthening of gravitational field and emergence of a strong attraction.
What is in a black hole?
It is possible to call a black mysterious object a hole only with a big stretch. The center of this phenomenon is the space body having the increased gravitation. The strong attraction to the surface of this space body becomes result of such gravitation. At the same time the vortex stream in which gases and particles of cosmic dust rotate is formed. Therefore it is more correct to call a black hole a black funnel.
To learn in practice that in a black hole, it is impossible because the level of gravitation of a space funnel does not allow any object to escape from a zone of its influence. According to scientists, in a black hole complete darkness, quanta of light disappear in it irrevocably. It is supposed that in a black funnel the space and time is distorted, laws of physics and geometry do not work in this place. Such features of black holes presumably can lead to formation of antimatters which are at the moment not familiar to scientists.
What are black holes dangerous by?
Sometimes black holes are described as the objects absorbing surrounding objects, radiations and particles. Such representation is incorrect: properties of a black hole allow it to absorb only what gets to a zone of its influence. It can involve in itself space microparticles and the radiation proceeding from stars doubles. Even if the planet is near a black hole, it will not be absorbed, and will continue to move on the orbit.
What will be if to get to a black hole?
Properties of black holes depend at most gravitational field. Black funnels attract to themselves everything that gets to a zone of their influence. At the same time space-time characteristics change. The scientists studying everything about black holes disagree relative what happens to objects in this funnel:
- some scientists assume that all objects getting to these holes stretch or broken off on pieces and do not manage to reach a surface of the attracting object;
- other scientists claim that in holes all habitual characteristics are bent therefore objects there kind of disappear in time and space. For this reason the black holes are called sometimes gate to other worlds.
Types of black holes
Black funnels are divided by types, proceeding from a way of their education:
- Black objects of star masses arise at the end of life of some stars. Full combustion of a star and the end of thermonuclear reactions leads to compression of a star. If at the same time the star undergoes gravitational collapse, then will be able to be transformed to a black funnel.
- Supermassive black funnels. Scientists claim that a core of any galaxy is the supermassive funnel which formation is the beginning of emergence of the new galaxy.
- Primary black holes. Here holes of various weight, including the microholes formed because of divergences in density of matter and force of gravitation can belong. Such holes are the funnels formed at the beginning of origin of the Universe. Here such objects as a hairy black hole belong. These holes differ in existence of the beams similar to hairs. It is supposed that these photons and gravitons save a part of information getting to a black hole.
- Quantum black holes. Appear as result of nuclear reactions and live short time. Quantum funnels are of the greatest interest as their study can help to answer questions on a problem of black space objects.
- Some scientists allocate such type of space objects, a hairy black hole. These holes differ in existence of the beams similar to hairs. It is supposed that these photons and gravitons save a part of information getting to a black hole.
The next black hole to Earth
The next black hole is removed from Earth on 3000 light years. It is called V616 Monocerotis, or V616 Mon. Its weight reaches 9-13 mass of the Sun. The binary partner of this hole – a star in the half-mass of the Sun. One more funnel, rather close to Earth, - Cygnus X-1. She settles down from Earth in 6 thousand light years and weighs in 15 times more of the Sun. This black space hole has too the binary partner whose movement helps to monitor influence of Cygnus X-1.
Black holes are the interesting facts
Scientists tell such interesting facts about black objects:
- If to take into account that these objects are the center of galaxies, then for search of the biggest funnel it is necessary to find the largest galaxy. Therefore the biggest black hole in the Universe – the funnel which is in the galaxy of IC 1101 in the center of the congestion Abell 2029.
- Black objects actually look as multi-colored. The reason of it is in their radio magnetic radiation.
- In the middle of a black hole there are no constant physical or mathematical laws. Everything depends on the mass of a hole and its gravitational field.
- Black funnels gradually evaporate.
- The weight of black funnels can reach the incredible sizes. The mass of the greatest black hole equals to 30 million mass of the Sun.