The operability of a human body directly depends on endurance degree. This quality is expressed in how long the person can be engaged in any given type of physical activity without interruption. And not always this parameter depends on the abilities put by the nature: there are trainings which allow to develop and enhance endurance.
The endurance is a potential of an organism, ability to cope with exhaustion at long-term performance of any work. The higher physical activity is transferred by the person, the degree of his endurance is higher. Improvement of this property is the main condition for preservation of stable physical activity.
Resistance to fatigue plays an important role in establishment of working capacity. For example, the inability to transfer long intensive loadings affects result of work and the general health.
Each person, but endurance degree at everyone the can resist to fatigue.
Important! Resistance to fatigue is put at the genetic level therefore it is congenital.
Those to whom the nature did not present high indefatigability should work independently: it is real to increase endurance by means of special trainings. Such stability will be acquired.
- General (aerobic). Defines tendency tirelessly a long time to execute actions of small intensity. Such type of stability concerns an organism in general, and athletes for achievement of results in sport try to develop this characteristic. Without increase in this quality it is impossible to develop target endurance.
- Special (anaerobic). Connected with long-term and intensive commission of narrowly targeted work (power gymnastics, trainings on speed).
- High-speed. Differs in ability of the person during the long period without violation of the equipment and fatigue to carry out high-speed movements. It is possible to train by means of anaerobic gymnastics (acceleration performance, etc.).
- High-speed and power. It is similar power, but differs in performance of highly active body-checks during long term. In other words — the fast movement with power loadings.
- It is characterized as repeated reproduction of difficult technical and policy strokes. Is reflected in sports duels and gymnastic exercises. For run has small value as is defined by recurrence of movements.
- Reflects a possibility of muscles to carry out power loadings without visible interruptions throughout the big period. This type of stability expresses ability of muscles to periodic reduction for a short time. Is dynamic (it is carried out at moderate speed and long) and static (keeps muscles tension without change of a pose the long period).
Whether you know? The volume of lungs of the ordinary person is equal 3-3.5 liters. Swimmers have these parameters slightly more — 5 liters, divers have 7 liters (greatest possible).
Carrying out each jog, it is necessary to watch the state. If you quietly run 3 km, it also is your distance (basic loading). Only then it is possible to plan addition or reduction of distance.
For determination of intensity of a training it is possible to be guided by breath frequency. Loading at a rhythm is considered acceptable 3х3 (the breath and an exhalation last on three steps). If enough air at such loading is not gained, it is not considered easy loading — speed should be reduced. It is also possible to determine run speed. The rhythm 2х2 is considered comfortable.
To learn whether the chosen loading is correct, pulse is calculated: it is measured 15 seconds and multiplied by 4. The indication — no more than 160 beats per minute is considered optimum. Values depend also on age: for people up to 30 years the range will be 170–190 blows. For more senior category the optimum rhythm is calculated by a formula: 200 blows minus age.
Important! At dizziness or zatumanivaniye in eyes the jog should be stopped for several minutes, having dropped at first into a slow walk, and only then to stop.
Carrying out the program for improvement of endurance, it is necessary to pay attention not only to physical trainings. Actually, regular trainings — guarantee of effective increase in stability. However it is not the only element of process. An important role is played also by a way of life: the healthy organism maintains loadings much easier. Therefore for persons interested to develop endurance there are such rules:
- Good and healthy rest. It is necessary to observe the mode and to lay down to have a rest at the scheduled time that the organism was restored and it was ready to new feats. Daily it is necessary to sleep not less, than 8 hours.
- Healthy nutrition. The adequate diet will fill an organism with necessary elements, will improve work of key systems and will give energy potential. Surely at a diet there have to be fruit, vegetables, fish, cereals, low-fat grades of meat.
- To drink enough water. The shortage of liquid in an organism provokes attacks of fatigue and considerably lowers working capacity. In day it is necessary to drink not less than 2 pure l.
- Refusal of addictions. They weaken a body, and the it is weaker, the quicker gets tired.
- Any stresses. Psychological splashes badly affect ability to overcome fatigue.
- Active way of life. It is possible to improve endurance, only constantly supporting an organism in a tone. Simple physical activities are not obligatory to be engaged in any certain exercises, enough at all: swimming, dances, gymnastics, yoga, driving the bicycle.
- Planning and fixing of results. Maintaining the diary of trainings allows to adhere more precisely to the set rhythm and in time to increase it.
Whether you know? Special gatherings of athletes before competitions which last several weeks take place in mountains.
For increase in endurance many recommend to add, despite of fatigue, to a training on several minutes. But for effective development of resistance to fatigue several technician is offered to use. We will describe only the most popular.
The good effect is gained from cross-country run. In this case it is necessary to run with rises and descents. It well gathers rather high speed and stability. During the cross-country all muscles of legs train. At the same time gives to effectiveness need to run on small mountains, and after — to go down from them.
During this training it is necessary to distribute loading, avoiding excess tension. Otherwise injuries are probable.
Learn how correctly and quickly to run and also what muscles work during run.
This exercise is carried out with the same intensity, as well as a cross-country, however during the training several periods for rest are given. And the most effective is interval run on an inclined surface. It is possible to make similar jogs on the route where there are a rise or descent, and it is possible also in the hall, on the racetrack. Rate of jog is chosen so that it was possible to run and talk, without short wind. Speed is also set certain: in 20 seconds 27–30 steps are taken.
The minimum time for jog — 20 minutes, maximum — 1.5 hours.
Important! All the time to the hill it is impossible to run, it is necessary to alternate loadings.
Jog at such training has to make about ½ from all complex. Pulse at the same time should not be higher than 150-180 beats per minute. Duration of intervals and frequency of trainings determine by personal physiological parameters and preferences.
When using such trainings it will become can do also run on long distances after a while. Except development of endurance, similar jogs help to improve a mental state and to forget about problems. Jogging does not demand special preparation and equipment.
When jogs by a trot on long distances become easily feasible, add power and high-speed methods to a training. So, jog is alternated: 300–400 meters run in an expedited manner, and as much — a trot.
Important! It is necessary to begin with small distances, 300–1500 meters. Gradually the distance is increased.
Many athletes managed to increase firmness, practicing run with high raising of knees, fighting training of soldiers and other types of intensive occupations. Thanks to a pliometrika (the technique practicing shock trainings) the athlete manages to increase the speed and transit time. Such trainings allow to develop the main muscles and to hold a body in a tone. It is possible to be engaged on an individual system with the instructor in gym, practicing 2–3 trainings a day. But if there is no such opportunity, it is possible to carry out such complex independently:
- Jog on a distance of 15-20 meters short and extremely fast paces. Carry out exercise of 6-8 times on 1–2 times a week. Well at jog actively to work hands.
- 5 minutes to carry out such gymnastics: jumps on one leg, jumps with high raising of a shin, jumps through a rope or on a jump rope.
We advise you to esteem how to make warm-up before run.
Many eminent athletes developed own technique of increase in endurance. Here some of them:
- Bart Yasso's reception. It is recommended to run several distances on 800 meters. It is possible to begin trainings with 4–5 intervals, choosing at the same time identical speed. It is necessary to increase weekly intervals by one unit later, bringing quantity to ten.
- Bill Pearce's method. The idea of this athlete is in alternating days of easy and intensive loading. For example, on Monday it is necessary to run 12 distances on 400 m (it is possible — 6 on 800 m), and on Wednesday — 4 km with high speed. On Saturday the jog can be planned for a distance of 10 km, speed — slow.
- Patrick Nobl's way. It is recommended to organize once a week long tempo trainings. It is possible to start from 20 minutes, adding weekly 5 minutes. After such trainings it is necessary to have a rest couple of days.
- Beasley's innovation. Craig Beasley, Canada, developed own means to increase endurance: to run 30 seconds and to go 4.5 minutes. To repeat such cycle 8 times. It is necessary to train 2–3 times a week. The distance can be increased gradually. In 6–8 months the athlete will be able to run 30 minutes without stopping.
As we see, the endurance plays not the last role in our activity. She establishes whether we will be able to become cheerful, or we will be constantly gloomy and sleepy.
Whether you know? Pliometrika is used in fitness and parkour. Such exercises help to develop the greatest effort for a short period.
Finding time for development of this characteristic, it is possible to improve not only a condition of the health, but also quality of life.