dharmichesky religions the Jainism is the most organized and influential. In our article we will tell in what we its essence and the basic principles and also will track development of Jainism from origin till our time.
What the religion is
The Jainism arose in India presumably in the 6th century BC. The short description of religion consists in refusal of violence concerning all live on the earth. Each being for adherents of this philosophy is allocated with eternal soul which could be in a human body earlier. Soul is an owner of infinite knowledge and force.
The philosophy and practice of Jainism is, first of all, a self-improvement of soul for obtaining omnipotence, an omniscience and eternal pleasure. Jains believe that observing the principle of a non-violence, self-control and asceticism, they can receive release and will be in a condition of divine consciousness and an enlightenment.
It will be interesting to you to learn not only about Hinduism, but also what Buddhists and about the description of religion Sikhism trust in.
For adherents of this religion the Universe is infinite and consists of live (dzhiva) and lifeless (adzhiva). All events in the world are cyclic and repeat through certain periods. Soul of the layman can take various forms: the person, the subhuman (plants, animals and other), the superman and a being from hell.
The Jainism does not recognize the system of caste division. Such denial means that everyone, regardless of estate and belonging to any caste, is capable to be exempted from a sansara.
Whether you know? Occupation is forbidden to adherents of Jainism by cattle breeding as it does harm to animals.
As there was a doctrine
The founder of this religion is considered Gene Makhavir (Vardhaman's) kshatriya. He admits the founder of designation of "gin" which is the most esteemed rank in Jainism. The owner of this title — managed to become free from a sansara (reincarnations within a karma) and reached a Dharma (respect for norms and rules for maintenance of a space order).
About the directions
In development of this religious philosophy between her supporters there were disagreements that provoked split. As a result of it two main branches of Jainism which adherents became were formed:
- Digambara ("dressed in the sky") — the asceticism and lack of clothes is peculiar to them.
- Shvetambara ("dressed in white") — they put on clothes of exclusively white color.
Whether you know? At acceptance in monks, digambara carry surely out a ceremony of plucking out of hair to future candidate.
In these directions there was a division into schools too.
Learn that the ashram, ekadash, the Bhagavad Gita, mantras, in particular a move mantra, a way of a bodhisattva mean and to what in Hinduism.
At digambar allocate the main and minor schools. Treat main:
Minor schools of digambar:
At shvetambar allocate such schools:
The school of a terapantkh at digambar differs from school with the same name at shvetambar. Digambara-terapantkh go bared and worship images, shvetambara-terenpantkh object to such rules.
Essence and basic principles
Main goal of this philosophical system of ancient India — clarification of soul from a negative that is reached by means of the principles under the name "Three Jewelry of Jainism". They help monks and laymen to reach an ideal and represent:
- perfect belief — belief in real existence;
- perfect knowledge — understanding that soul and a body are various and Moksha (release) is reached exactly by soul;
- perfect behavior — actions have to be free from likes and dislikes.
Followers of this religion do not recognize a concept of the highest deity, each soul independently is responsible for the real and future life.
Practicing asceticism (a strict way of life with self-restriction and refusal of carnal pleasures) and adhering to ethical standards of Jainism, any soul can find divinity.
What Jains trust in: basic ethical principles
The Jainism attributes both to monks, and laymen to adhere to the basic ethical principles which non-compliance will make impossible achievement of an ultimate goal. They are called "Five great vows". The severity of their performance depends on the Jain's belonging to monks or laymen.
Not to do harm to anything live, neither in thoughts, nor in actions. Also this vow orders to monitor carefully the speech not to allow insults of others.
All Jains vegetarians, they filter water which is drunk not to do harm to imperceptible living beings.
Monks have a special whisk for sweeping of the road before themselves to secure living souls at themselves on the way.
Any living being, according to this principle, has the right for the individual view of the world, and Jains are obliged to respect him. Ignoring of it can do indirect harm to others that is inadmissible.
Abstention from a lie. This principle orders to Jains to be open, pious and sincere.
It is important! In case the truthfulness can cause someone's suffering, Jains will prefer to keep silent, than to tell a lie.
The Jainism excludes any manifestations of theft. This vow orders to adherents of this doctrine to direct the consciousness towards spirituality and reduction of terrestrial needs.
Jains have to be satisfied only with what is reached as a result of a personal honest labor.
Violation of this great vow is:
- assignment of others things;
- assignment in private use of things which someone forgot or dropped;
- purchase of things which cost is reduced unfair (stolen, illegally sold).
This vow includes a reward of any person for the executed work.
Ban on a prelyubodeystviye. This vow means the ban for monks on any contacts of sexual nature and self-satisfaction.
Important! Sex in Jainism is not forbidden, but the energy spent for it is considered unjustified, at that time when it can be spent for spiritual development.
This vow orders abstention from money-making, it is accepted before entering monkhood. Relying on this principle, it is necessary to renounce entirely property and material values. Besides, it is necessary to be forbidden the house also to family.
It is considered that the property and attachments alienate the Jain from nirvana (condition of pleasure).
The laymen observing to Aparigrakh renounce moneymaking, are content with small and all forces on the spiritual growth and development direct.
Among extended the practician of yoga it is necessary to call Ayengar, Anuloma-Vilom, the Mule of a bandh, Jalandhar of a bandh, Uddiyana of a bandh, Agni Yoga, Kaula-yoga, Hatha yoga, yogalates, the Bhakti yogi, Fly yoga, Atm Kriya of the Yogi, Kriyya-yoga, akroyog, kapalabkhata.
About modern Jains
Unlike other Indian exercises, the Jainism is a little widespread in the West, and in modern India it represents the small religious community, numbering about 3 million people.
But, despite small number, the Jainism influences national economy, trade and usurious activity of Jains takes the advanced positions in these industries.
The Jainism preaches the severe principles of self-renunciation for responsible and conscious achievement of true freedom. Observing all vows and instructions, Jains become on the way leading to finding of a divine enlightenment.