Squats are general exercise which as much as possible involves all muscles of a lower body. There is a set of their types and ways of performance, each of which can be directed to achievement of various purposes: weight loss, creation of a relief or accumulation of muscle bulk. In total about squats in this article.
Types of squats
All squats are divided into three main groups. Are used in different spheres of strength sports:
- In powerlifting. These squats of average depth when hips fall to such situation that they formed the line parallel to a floor. The most popular exercise among the fans and visitors of the fitness centers wishing to tighten buttocks.
- In weightlifting. These are the most difficult and power-intensive squats. Maximum depth. It is necessary that during performance the hips adjoined to calves. Basin falls as low as possible to a floor. Are carried out with weightings. Are directed to accumulation of muscle bulk of legs and buttocks.
- In bodybuilding. These exercises pursue the aim to pump over and trace a relief of muscles of hips. It superficial so hips appear above the line parallel to a floor.
It will be for certain interesting to you to learn in more detail about bodybuilding and powerlifting.
Depending on to what group exercises belong, types them too different — basic and additional. Everyone can be carried out both with burdening, and without it.
It is necessary to select exercises individually and taking into account such factors:
- the pursued purposes;
- constitutions of a body;
- physical training;
- anatomic features;
- available diseases.
Whether you know? Squats train not only buttocks, but also a stomach. Researchers proved that during squats the press receives much more loading, than at usual twisting.
Features of one and all squats are the involved muscles during their performance, and is independent, the main they or additional:
- All muscles of legs are involved that allows to develop a relief evenly. Legs at shoulder length. Hands in a starting position are lowered along a body. When lowering a basin it needs to be taken away back, holding a back at the same time of a straight line, and to extend hands before itself. Hips are parallel to the line of a floor. To sit down on a breath, and at rise — an exhalation. It is possible to carry out with weighting and without.
- Plie. The internal surface of a hip is qualitatively studied, buttocks at the same time are not accented. That is why this look does not suit those who want to pump up a back part of a body, but is ideal who has a problem zone — an internal part of a hip. Legs are much wider than shoulders, socks separately. When lowering a basin it cannot be put aside back, the back needs to be held equal. Knees are directed towards socks of feet. To squat so that hips formed the line parallel to a floor, without cramping knees to the center. It is possible to carry out with a dumbbell before itself, then pumping of an internal part of a hip will be more effective.
- Squats with the legs cramped together. An external part of buttocks and hips is well studied. It is carried out just as classical option, with only that difference that legs need to be put closely to each other.
- Curtsey. Exercise studies mainly gluteuses and the front surface of hips. It is carried out with skreshchyonny legs – one slightly in front, another behind. It is necessary to sit down that the hip of a front leg was parallel to a floor, completely to transfer weight to this leg. The knee back and a heel cannot be lowered on a floor. To replace position of legs. It is necessary to be careful as this exercise, as well as plie, enters knee joints and ankles into unnatural situation that is fraught with injuries at the wrong performance.
- Balance. Similar to classical option, but one leg costs not on full foot, and on a sock. Weight at the same time is completely transferred to that leg which rests all foot against a floor. Exercise raises load of muscles of buttocks and hips and prepares for the following complicated for exercise.
- Gun. These are squats which are carried out on one leg. Are effective for accumulation of muscle bulk. Load of other leg increases so considerably that it is equated to a raising of body weight. For a start it is possible to do with a support in the form of a chair back. Standing on one leg, another needs to be lifted forward and on an exhalation to sit down so that the hip formed a right angle. To rise, replace a leg and to repeat.
- With a jump. Very effective exercise, gives cardioloading and develops muscular force, qualitatively burns calories. In fact, it is usual squats with a difference that it is necessary to jump out strongly, as much as possible straining all muscles. As soon as after a jump of a leg concern a floor, it is impossible to fade — it is necessary to fall to the following squat at once.
- With a step aside. Besides buttocks and a front part of hips, trains as well the internal surface of a hip. Good load of breath and a cardiac muscle is given. Standing with the feet and legs reduced together, it is necessary to take a step aside on such distance that feet were at shoulder length. Hips at the same time are parallel to a floor, and the basin is taken away back. Repeats in both parties.
- With weighting — with a bar, dumbbells and weights. Exercises with capture of big weight are directed to accumulation of muscle bulk. They are effective and difficult performed by. Practically each type of squats can be carried out with weighting, however classics, plies and sumo are the most popular;
- It squats with a bar, however it it is necessary to take not on a back, and on a breast, holding at the level of the top segment of pectoral muscles. Difference from usual squats with a bar that at frontal performance the load of buttocks increases, and it allows to pump over more effectively interesting muscles. Besides load of a waist decreases that allows to secure it against injuries.
Important! In exercise of plie the risk is high to be traumatized. The thing is that cultivation of knees is not natural position of legs aside, in everyday life we so do not squat. Knee joints are exposed to big loading, and at the wrong technology of performance or insufficient physical training injuries are possible. This exercise not for beginners!
In performance of any exercise (special it which is connected with capture of big weight) very important to observe the correct equipment. At their wrong performance of effect do not expect as necessary muscles just will not receive loading (it will be mistakenly distributed on additional muscle fibers).
What groups of muscles are involved
Correctly to choose for itself a set of exercises, and it was effective, it is necessary to know what during squats muscles work. The main such:
- The hip quadriceps (chetyryokhglavy muscle) is a front part of a hip. She is responsible for that the leg was straightened in a knee joint.
- Biceps of a hip (biceps) — the back part of a hip which is responsible for that the leg was bent in a knee and was straightened in a hip.
- The bringing hip muscles — the internal surface of hips. Promote assignment of a leg aside.
- Gluteuses — big, average and small. Are multipurpose, are responsible for all movements of the lower half of a body.
- Sural and kambalovidny muscles are shins. Participate in maintenance of balance and promote bipedalism.
The additional muscles stabilizers working during performance of squats perform important functions too:
- Promote maintenance of a direct back in exercises. Muscles of lumbar department are generally involved. However at the correct distribution of load and center of gravity the back has to be responsible only for the equal situation. Back muscles during squats do not swing as it is ineffective and unsafe.
- Also average are involved only lower. Is responsible for maintenance of a peritoneum in a tone and forms a muscular corset around internals, helps to support the provision and balance.
Whether you know? At men of squat with burdening increase testosterone level.
Muscles which participate in squats are identical both at men, and at women. There are no anatomic distinctions when performing exercise. Nevertheless differences in muscular architecture at representatives of different floors are obvious. It is caused not by different influence of squats on muscles, and and therefore work as the fact that men and women set the different purposes in pumping on different groups of muscles. Differences in performance of squats define what muscles they influence and what, will grow or change respectively the relief. So, guys at first pump over quadriceps and bicepses of hips and also shins. Roundish buttocks to them to anything. Therefore they carry out exercises, the most effective for muscles of legs (for example, plie, squats with legs together or high squats with a bar). Quadriceps shake when lowering a basin — so that the hip parallel to the line is higher than a floor.
Read in more detail about advantage of squats for an organism of men and women.
Other purposes at girls. They seek to create roundish buttocks (and it is possible if as much as possible to develop gluteuses). For achievement of result squats with deep lowering of a basin and its assignment are used back (for example, sumo). Beginners who began to use such exercises in the trainings only recently, interests what muscles have to hurt after squats. So, for example, girls ask a question why after the training they are not hurt by buttocks. The fact is that that part of a body which worked will hurt. This answer to a question concerns not only representatives of a fine half of mankind.
Important! Painful feelings have to be in all muscles which were involved in each concrete exercise. Pain will arise, but only if muscle fibers received a maximum load.
If muscles do not hurt, so you or loaded them insufficiently, or broke technology of performance of squats, having distributed efforts to additional muscle fibers, or transferred the center of gravity to others which should not be involved.
Contraindications to performance
To carry out squats both with weighting, and without it, it is contraindicated in such cases:
- any diseases of the musculoskeletal device;
- leg injuries and backs;
- any problems with heart and vessels.
However existence of these problems does not mean that you cannot train legs and buttocks. As an analog any exercises on legs in lying situation can act (for example, a press of legs lying).
We recommend to learn how to carry out the Bulgarian squats.
Basic rules and recommendations
To listen to a professional advice never late. For successful performance of the exercises based on squats it is necessary to consider their some important recommendations:
- It is necessary to start occupations (especially with any weights) only after a good warming up.
- The main rule — ideally equal back, even with a small deflection in a waist. It is strictly forbidden to round a back as it is fraught with its injuries.
- You do not twirl by the head, do not lower a chin down and do not lift up. The head needs to be held exactly and to look before itself.
- Feet and knees have to be parallel each other in all squats, except plie and sumo. But anyway knees should not leave inside.
- You watch round the corner hips in relation to a floor as depends on it worked out groups of muscles (in classical squats this corner 90 °);
- The correct provision of various points of a body on the relation to each other is important. So, socks, knees and shoulders when lowering a basin have to be on one vertical line. Do not bend strongly forward and be not filled up back.
- Stand full foot with the emphasis on a heel.
- When performing you watch the speed of movements. So, it is necessary to fall longer down, than to rise up. On average, for lowering of a basin there are enough about 3-4 seconds, and rise has to be fast. In the lower point the basin can be recorded for a second then strongly to push out it with the emphasis on heels up.
- When using a bar you watch that it was not on a neck, and is slightly lower — above a trapeze.
- When using dumbbells or weights which you hold before yourself above or below, always completely straighten shoulders, taking away them a little back that weight was evenly distributed on pectoral muscles.
- Take suitable extreme weight. Too small will not yield necessary result in building; too big at which technology of performance suffers can injure. Weight has to be such that you could make a small amount of approaches, but it is correct.
- If your purpose is not to build muscles, and to lose weight and bring muscles into a tone, to create a relief, then you should not be engaged with weighting. Will be the dynamic exercises burning calories, and a large number of repetitions enough. For this purpose squats with a jump are ideal.
- That occupations were the most effective, sensitively watch the body. Always concentrate attention on those muscles on which you work. At such concentration you will better feel them, will be able to feel whether they are involved; feel where there is a center of gravity and as weight is distributed. It will help to carry out exercises technically correctly and not to make mistakes.
- The correct breath in squats is so important, as well as technology of performance. It is necessary to breathe as follows: to inhale during lowering of a basin down and to do an exhalation at full rise up.
Important! Mechanics of breath such is that at an exhalation of a muscle of a peritoneum relax, and on a breath are formed in a corset in which both the stomach, and a breast, and a back are grouped. Such muscular corset is necessary at pushing out of a basin upward.
Technology of performance of squats
Any squats can be carried out with an additional weight or without it. Technology of performance will depend on existence of burdening.
Without additional weight
Such squats are called air. They suit all, do not demand special physical training and houses can be carried out as in the hall, and. Technology of performance of classical squats is as follows:
- Reach a standing position, having put legs at shoulder length. Feet are parallel each other, a back equal. You hold the head directly, hands are along a body (on a waist or are extended before themselves).
- On a breath fall down. In the lower point the hips have to appear at an angle in 90 ° and to be parallel to a floor. Do movements not too quickly and without sharp movements.
- Be late in the lower position.
- Exhaling, rise up, with power effort and with the emphasis on heels, pushing out a body up.
- Without pauses lower a basin again down. It is a breath.
- You monitor breath, an equal back and behind that socks, knees and shoulders were on one vertical line.
Important! Growth of muscles happens at the expense of their extreme tension and the subsequent relaxation. If relaxation does not occur, then the muscle will burn down, but not grow. Therefore after the intensive trainings it is necessary to give to a body high-quality rest (not less than for two days).
With an additional weight
As additional weight it is possible to use a bar or pancake from it, an empty signature stamp, dumbbells, weights, bodibar, and in house conditions will even approach the bottles filled with water. The main thing that exercises with burdening are directed to accumulation of muscle bulk (so, they need to be carried out especially attentively, observing the correct equipment). Technology of performance of squats with an additional weight consists in the following:
- Choose a shell for burdening. The bar can be held behind on a back, on a top of a trapeze or in front on a breast (at frontal squats). Dumbbells are held in each hand below or on a breast in the hands bent in elbows. With weights the same situation if they are steam rooms. One weight is held with two hands (it is possible near the top segment of pectoral muscles or below). Same concerns also all other shells.
- Get up exactly, having taken a position for the chosen type of squats.
- On a breath slowly squat, and on an exhalation, faster push, rise up, kind of pushing out weight.
- As the majority of exercises is directed to extension of gluteuses, take away a basin back and fall as low as possible. The lowest point of lowering of a basin most effectively pumps over buttocks.
- Do repetitions in one approach until it turns out to observe precisely the equipment, without deviation of knees and flexure of a back. If there are no forces any more, and the equipment begins it is time to suffer, so to finish approach and to have a rest.
Whether you know? Muscles best of all grow when the person sleeps. 8 hours of an uninterrupted dream are minimum time of night rest for athletes and those who train with a heavy weight.
The main mistakes in squats
Mistakes often result in inefficiency of exercises or can even become the cause of a trauma. Pay attention to the most widespread:
- insufficiently warmed muscles because of what they are not elastic at all and can even tear;
- superficial lowering of a basin at air squats therefore legs and buttocks do not receive necessary loading;
- the roundish back is fraught with waist injuries;
- knees are filled up inside;
- incorrectly picked up pose without anatomic features;
- the dangling hands which are not taking part in balance maintenance;
- the case which is filled up forward or back;
- additional weight – too small or too big is incorrectly chosen;
- squats with a bar without insurance;
- too fast lowering of a basin down;
- sharp movements;
- lack of coordination of movements when parts of a body or shells walk here and there;
- lack of concentration of attention on the working muscles because of what gross blunders can be made.
Video: 5 mistakes when performing squats Proceeding from the aforesaid, it is possible to draw a conclusion that squats — one of the most effective exercises for a training of a lower body. It basic in any kind of sport. Regularly squatting, it is possible not only to improve the physical state, but also to give to a body attractive appearance.