Ammonia is widely applied in the industry and agriculture. From it receive nitric acid, urea, salts and other chemicals. For the medical purposes from it produce liquid ammonia. But to make any of these substances, it is necessary to receive ammonia previously.
1. In the nature nitrogen is in a free state and also as a part of some connections. In the industry it is received from liquid air. Nitrogen is one of the most widespread gases, it has no color and a smell. On chemical properties nitrogen is considered oxidizer therefore connects to some metals. However, at the room temperature it reacts only with lithium, and with other metals nitrogen is capable to react only when heating. Most often in the nature N2 nitrogen meets. It is capable to form various connections and easily reacts. The vast majority of compounds of nitrogen is applied to production of fertilizers and insecticides.
2. A product of reaction of nitrogen with hydrogen is such connection as ammonia. Ammonia represents colourless gas which molecule consists of one atom of nitrogen and three atoms of hydrogen. It has a pungent smell. This substance has unique properties and thereof finds broad application in the industry and agriculture. Connecting to water, ammonia forms the solution called ammoniac water. In life solution of ammonia more often is called liquid ammonia. Receive it by means of the following reaction: NH3 + H2O = NH4OHNH4OH is and there is a liquid ammonia which is also called ammonium hydroxide. As ammonia has recovery abilities, ammoniac solution has alkalescent reaction.
3. In the industry ammonia is received by its synthesis from nitrogen and hydrogen. As reaction is reversible and is exothermic, she registers as follows: N2 + 3H2 = 2NH3 +? H, where? H =-92.4 this reaction in the presence of porous iron with oxide of aluminum or calcium kDzhProtekat. Carry out it at a temperature from 500 to 600 °C. The quality of receiving ammonia, except temperature, is also affected by absence in raw materials of impurity. Therefore before reaction remove water, carbon oxides, and, especially, sulphurous connections from nitrogen and hydrogen.
4. In vitro ammonia is received by heating of chloride of ammonium and extinguished lime: 2NH4Cl + Ca(OH)2 = CaCl2 + 2NH3 + 2H2OB the course of reaction has in a deposit substance of white color - CaCl2 salt, water is emitted and also ammonia which is required to be received is produced. Other laboratory way of receiving ammonia consists in boiling of ammoniac water and drainage of the received steam.