What is cynicism – definition, signs that is behind cynicism?

What is cynicism – definition, signs that is behind cynicism?

What is cynicism? Modern sociologists and psychologists are considered that this phenomenon reached the apogee. Society comprises cynicism initially. This phenomenon is characteristic both of each individual personality, and of a public system in general.

What does the cynicism mean?

The cynicism – definition of this concept originates in one of the directions of Ancient Greek philosophy the kinizm based by the thinker Antisthenes. Today, the cynicism is far from its initial value and represents the personal phenomenon expressed in frank neglect and even contempt of people, morals, moral values which developed in society. All this is followed by bright demonstrative manifestation in behavior and frank hypocrisy.

Cynicism problem

The value of cynicism in the ancient time is a manifestation of contempt for restrictions and conventions, the person was perceived as something bigger, than all conventions which were created by religion, and all life came down to the simplified existence. The problem of modern cynics is in what is more often, it is achievement of the purpose, for example race for power or the aspiration to wealth which is followed by different methods and means which will cause rejection because of the moral principles in the mature personality self-respecting itself.

Cynicism reasons

The cynicism and nihilism of a concept interconnected. The nihilism is expressed more in external behavior of the person, denying public laws and the principles, nihilists are negative to different spheres in life, all of them call into question. Both the nihilism and cynicism is signs of psychological protection of the person. Cynicism reasons:

  • way to adapt to the world around (high intensity of external irritants, stressful factors);
  • permissiveness since childhood (all is allowed to the child, parents unscrupulous);
  • the personal ideas of correctness and volume how to work;
  • disappointment in people, the state system.

Cynicism – it is good or bad?

The measure of things – the person, also is what is called golden mean. To tell that cynicism this absolute evil is quite misleading. At any phenomenon two parties of a medal. But it is frequent, the personality does not realize that the side "between the good and evil" is very thin and imperceptibly the person any more not that which he was yesterday: the sympathizer understanding with a small share of scepticism and healthy cynicism. The person who became the frank cynic – a continuous "lump of pain", but expresses it it, seeking not to find the weaknesses, instead he with a cynical sneer exposes and mocks at others.

Modern cynicism

Signs of cynicism in the person are a denial and neglect to universal values. The modern cynicism can be divided into two forms:

  1. Cynicism of ruling structure (state system, organization). In society there is an assumption that in power there can be only people who trampled on the moral principles and morality going to the power through money, but not on fair selection.
  2. The cynicism of the population – here often this disappointment and offenses at the mighty of this world, "unjustified hopes" for bright future which does not occur and engenders the cynical relation of people to a system.

Legal cynicism

What is legal nihilism and cynicism? These are two interconnected concepts. The famous sociologist V. Bachinin referred cynicism to the destructive direction in attitude of the individual, on an equal basis with blasphemy, sacrilege and amoralism. The person the cynic is inclined to criminal behavior, committing a crime, people with the cynical attitude towards precepts of law seek to show the attitude to the law, the right and the power through the victim of crime. Specialists in investigation of crimes often use a formulation "is made with special / sophisticated cynicism".

The legal nihilism is one of the directions of nihilism as historical current when not just universal values, but the right, its social value are denied. The legal nihilism is peculiar to both ordinary citizens and some authorized representatives, officials. Achievement of socially important results is considered unlawful actions irreproachable.

Cynicism in medicine

The professional cynicism is closely connected with such concept as "emotional burning out" which harmful affects the expert of any profession. The cynicism of doctors is more sharply perceived, shocks people because it is connected with human life when one "cynical", rough intervention of the doctor can cost to the person of health and even life. Why the doctor becomes cynical? It is connected with the fact that heavy responsibility is heavy cargo, in a medical lexicon there is an expression: "Each doctor has the small cemetery". And it so.

Even doctors from god, are disappointed, are tired, emotionally burn out. It is not an occasion to become cynical, and if desired with this state it is possible to work, find the reasons, to give itself rest or to rise before the choice: "how the doctor, I bring more benefit or harm?" The medicine becomes more and more business where treat people consumer, it is very cynical too in relation to those who are not able to afford high-quality medical service.

Political cynicism

What is political cynicism? From historical sources of N. Makkiawelli was the first theorist introducing cynicism in policy, but still earlier, for 2000 to the Florentine thinker there was the Chinese aristocrat Shang Yang who wrote the political treatise "Book by the Governor of the Area of Shang" in which very frankly and ways of board are cynically described. Strong the state can be only when the people weak, Shang Yang wrote if the people strong – the state weak.

The totalitarian board with pressure upon people paid off only in hard times, for example when there was a war, or post-war ruin, but in peace times top of cynicism and it exhausted such board, speaking to B. Okudzhava's words of the state perish for the reason that the people do not need such board any more, at people the trust is exhausted. The mutual respect of tops and the people subject to them provides prosperity of society.

Healthy cynicism

What is healthy cynicism and whether it can be that. On this question there is a set of opinions and theories, there is no unambiguity. The cynicism of the person was historically developed in response to the injustice existing in society, it is possible to assume that the cynicism is caused by discrepancy of expectations from reality. In the modern world not to do without shred of healthy cynicism, sociologists consider and they are echoed by psychologists. Tons of changes, information, generally negative falls upon minds and mentality of people – and the drop of healthy cynicism with "indifference" helps to stay afloat.

What is behind cynicism

The cynicism in psychology represents the protective barrier built by mentality. Cynics are neurotics. Speaking to the world "Is not present!", the cynic says to himself "yes!", protecting in itself what he considers the greatest value as compared offers it the world. For the world they are destroyers of values, but more often it is attempt to remain complete and not to be absorbed by a system. The cynicism is and a mask hiding disappointment, pain inside. Cynics force to suffer others and ego-trip from it, feeling some sense of relief for a while, but pain from it only grows.

Books about cynicism

"What is cynicism – authors of the works given below tried to open this subject in full. At some books there is a hidden cynicism of authors, in others the cynicism is shown as a problem of society. The works written about cynicism and also reflecting cynicism of writers:

  1. "About youthful cynicism" R. Bertrán. The author with regret notes that the modern youth generally all cynics, and argues on the reasons which entailed mass character of this phenomenon.
  2. "Demons" F. Dostoyevsky. Classics will never become outdated, everything that is in this work about cynicism, callousness, dishonourableness relevant and now.
  3. "Financier" T. Dreiser. The main character of the work Frank Kaupervud, for it all means of achievement of the goal are good, it is cold, cynical, and does not suffer from torments of anguish.
  4. "Forget it! How to live without the overestimated expectations, to sensibly estimate the opportunities and to overcome difficulties" S. Bennet. M. Bennet. In the book advice how to develop skills of healthy indifference and cynicism which help to look at the problems arising in life without stress and an anguish is given.
  5. "Dear friend" Guy de Maupassant. Money, the power and women – everything that interests the young man Georges Dyurua, the cynic and the rascal who skillfully manipulates the cute appearance has success with women and makes the way at their expense to big wealth.


Author: «MirrorInfo» Dream Team