In December, 1903 the brothers Wright successfully tested the first aircraft heavier than air, having connected the glider to the motor. That prototype of the plane was primitive and only bore a faint resemblance to modern aircrafts. In the next decades the design of the plane was improved and improved. As a result the plane received that device which main lines remained and today.
1. The main part of any plane – the case which in aircraft it is accepted to call the fuselage. The case has a special compartment – a cabin in which pilots settle down. Transport and passenger planes are supplied with compartments for transportation of goods and people. In a front part of the fuselage there is a chassis which is the cart on which the aircraft is located. The back part of the building (plane tail) is equipped with a support; professionals call it a crutch.
2. The traditional single-engine plane is equipped with the motor located in a front part. The propeller by means of which the plane is set in motion is got on a shaft of the propulsion system. Containers with fuel and oil, as a rule, are located behind the motor. The pilot is in the closed cabin protected from wind by special glasses and equipped with sensors of control and management.
3. A back part of the fuselage is intended for control of airplane and maintenance of its stability in flight. To these purposes serve a tail part and two wheels. The first gives the chance to turn the plane across, and the second serves for rise and descent of the device. Vertical and horizontal stabilizers are responsible for maintaining stability in air. Mobile parts of the plane are established on hinged designs.
4. On both sides from the aircraft fuselage wings are located. They create the carrying power which lifts the device in air. Wings have quite difficult design and consist of stringers, longerons and ribs. Designs of planes meet one continuous wing or two rows of the wings located one under another and connected by vertical racks. In a back part the wings are equipped with ailerons – small mobile elements by means of which the aircraft maintains stability in the cross direction.
5. Such is the general device of the plane. It must be kept in mind that depending on type, a class and purpose of the plane its design can differ from described a little. The modern fighting flying vehicles, for example, have the special equipment, powerful weapon systems and managements allowing to make flights in the automatic mode.