How many aggregate states exist

How many aggregate states exist

Aggregate state of substance depends from physical conditions in which it is. Presence at substances of several aggregate states is caused by differences in the thermal movement of their molecules in different conditions.


1. Substance can be in three aggregate states — liquid, firm or gaseous. Transitions a boundary accompany with them spasmodic changes of physical properties (heat conductivity, density). Plasma is considered the fourth aggregate state.

2. Gas call aggregate state of substance at which its particles are poorly connected by interaction forces. It is possible to transfer any substance to gaseous state, changing its temperature and pressure. At the same time kinetic energy of thermal motion of the molecules and atoms considerably will surpass potential energy of their interaction with each other. For this reason of a particle freely move, they entirely fill a vessel, taking its form.

3. The solid body is characterized by stability of a form and a certain thermal movement of atoms which causes their fluctuations. In comparison with interatomic distances amplitude of these fluctuations is small. The structure of solid bodies is various, however distinguish amorphous bodies and crystals from them.

4. Amorphous bodies of an izotropna, they have fluidity and have no constant temperature of melting. In them atoms fluctuate about the points located chaotically. In crystals atoms or ions are located in knots of a crystal lattice.

5. The crystal structure depends on forces operating between particles. The same atoms can form different structures, for example, graphite and diamond, white and gray tin. Solid bodies divide into three classes as a chemical bond — covalent crystals, ionic and metal.

6. Liquid is an intermediate aggregate state of substance between firm and gaseous, the mobility of particles and small distance between them is characteristic of it. Its density much more density of gases with a normal pressure, at the same time properties of liquid of an izotropna, that is are identical on all direction. An exception are only liquid crystals.

7. When heating liquid of its property, such as viscosity and heat conductivity, approach properties of gases. If it is influenced by the external force which a long time keeps the direction, molecules begin to move that leads to fluidity.

8. Plasma call partially or completely ionized gas, in this aggregate state is the most part of substance in the Universe — galactic fogs, stars and the interstellar environment. However on the Earth's surface, plasma appears seldom, for example, at flash of a lightning or in vitro in the form of the gas category. In recent years its application considerably extended, plasma fills glass tubes of neon advertizing and a fluorescent lamp.

Author: «MirrorInfo» Dream Team