What are climatic zones

What are climatic zones

Our planet is divided into several zones with similar weather conditions - they are called climatic zones. Division of the general climate into various zones is caused by the provision of parts of Earth concerning the equator.

Climatic zones are the main and transitional. The main climatic zones have the invariable nature of the movement of air during the whole year. In transitional areas, signs of two main belts seasonally are observed. Carry to the main types:

1. Equatorial belt

Is located on both sides of the equator. It is characterized by constant air temperature (24 ° −26 in heat °C), at the sea it is less than 1 °C of fluctuation of temperatures. The maximum of solar heat is observed in September and March when the sun stands in a zenith. These months the maximum quantity of precipitation drops out. The annual sum of precipitation — about 3000 mm, in mountains of draft can reach 6000 mm. Precipitation usually in the form of heavy rains drops out. There are a lot of boggy places, the dense many-tier damp jungle with an exclusive variety of a plant and animal life grows. High moistening is favorable for the majority of cultural plants therefore in the equatorial belt collect two harvests a year.

Damp forests of the left inflows of Amazon, the Andes of Ecuador and Colombia, the coast of the Gulf of Guinea, Cameroon, the right inflows of Congo, Neil's upper course, the southern half of the island Ceylon, the most part of the Indonesian archipelago, part of Quiet and Indian oceans belong to the equatorial climatic zone. 2. Tropical poyastropichesky climatic zones in the Northern and Southern hemisphere cover zones of year-round area of high pressure. In tropics the atmosphere over the continent and the ocean is various therefore the oceanic tropical climate and continental tropical climate differs. Oceanic it is similar to equatorial, differs only in steady winds and smaller overcast. Summer over oceans warm, about +25 °C, and winter cool, on average +12 °C. Above the ground the area of high pressure prevails, rains are rare here. The continental climate differs in very hot summer and in the cool winter. Daily air temperature is capable to change sharply. Such differences lead to frequent dust storms. In magnificent evergreen forests it is always warm and damp. Here too a lot of precipitation drops out. Africa (Sahara, Angola, Kalakhari), Asia (Arabia), North America (Cuba, Mexico), South America (Peru, Bolivia, Chile, Paraguay), the central part of Australia treat tropical climatic zone. 3. The moderate poyasumerenny climatic zone is not uniform. In it seasons unlike tropical and equatorial are pronounced. The sea climate and damp continental is distinguished. All zones differ in an average annual amount of precipitation and characteristic vegetation. Sea dominates in the west of North and South America, Eurasia. There are a lot of cyclones therefore weather is unstable. Besides, the western winds bringing all the year round precipitation blow. Summer in this belt warm, about +26 °C, winter cold, from +7 °C to −50 °C. Continental prevails in the center of continents. Cyclones get here less often therefore here warmer and dry summer and colder winter. 4. Polar poyasobrazut two belts: Antarctic and Arctic. The polar belt has unique feature - the sun does not appear several months in a row here (polar night) and also polar day when it does not leave for the horizon lasts long. Air is strongly cooled, snow does not thaw practically all year. Treat transitional zones: 1. A subequatorial belt treat a northern belt: Isthmus of Panama, Venezuela, Guinea, the Sahelo deserts in Africa, India, Myanmar, Bangladesh, the Southern China. The southern belt covers the Amazonian lowland, Brazil, the center and the East of Africa, the North of Australia. In the summer here the equatorial air masses dominate. A lot of precipitation, average temperature of +30 °C drops out. In the winter in a subequatorial belt tropical air masses, temperature about +14 °C manage. The territory of this climatic zone is very favorable for life of people, exactly there were many civilization.2. Subtropical climate. In this belt either the Mediterranean climate, or subtropical prevails. Almost all year drops out a lot of precipitation therefore vegetation differs in a special variety. The subtropical belt covers the Mediterranean, the Southern coast of the Crimea, the Western California, the southwest of Africa and Australia, the South of Japan, East China, the North of New Zealand, Pamir and Tibet.3. Subpolar climate. This climatic zone is located on the northern outskirts of North America and Eurasia. In the summer here it is cool (+5 °C-10 of °C), in the winter the Arctic air masses, winters long and cold come here (up to -50 °C).

Author: «MirrorInfo» Dream Team