The word "genre" came from the French genre that is translated as "sort" or "look". Literary critics have no unity in definition of this term. But most often, understand the groups of works united on the basis of set of formal and substantial properties as literary genres.
Theory of literature on genres
The theory of literature operates with three basic concepts: sort, look and genre. There is no standard interpretation of these concepts so far. Some are based on etymological word meaning and call genres childbirth. Others adhere to more common division. In this case the sort is understood as a way of the image (lyrical, drama or epic); under a look – any given certain form of lyrical, drama or epic poetry (for example, the ode, the comedy, the novel); and under a genre – types of the existing types of poetry (for example, the satirical poem or the historical novel).
The genre, as well as other elements of an art form, is one of fixed assets of disclosure of contents. Comparing two genres of the poem, heroic and satirical, it is possible to notice that in the first to the forefront there is an image of an important event in the life of people in the course of which commission the valor and strength of representatives of these people are shown. An example of the heroic poem is "Tale of Igor's Campaign". In the satirical poem, on the contrary, any low event which is exposed to derision is represented. "The Tambov kaznacheysha" of M.Yu. Lermontov belongs to satirical poems. However in both cases the genre of the literary work is defined by the nature of represented.
Different typology of literary genres
The first made attempt to systematize literary genres still Aristotle in "Poetics". Today are accepted different typology of genres, based on various criteria. Formav this case the following literary genres are allocated: short story, story, story, novel, essay, essay, ode, poem, play, sketch. TematikaZhanra differ on thematic features. For example, the novel can be science-fiction, Gothic, historical, swindling, psychological. That, Peter I of A.N. Tolstoy is the historical novel, its Aelita - the fantastic novel, and "The hero of our time" of M.Yu. Lermontov – social and psychological. OtsenkaLiteraturnyy genres are also divided by features of ideological and emotional assessment. For example, early stories by A.P. Chekhov – comic, and Yu.P. Kazakova – lyrical. Modern literary genres are not an element of any system or typology. They are aimed at new art search and often consciously leave from genre definiteness.