At digestive tract diseases for more exact diagnostics of its reason the attending physician appoints various researches among which one of the most informative is the koprogramma.
What is a koprogramma
Koprogramma (or a koprolgiya) is a research of stool for the purpose of definition of their physical and chemical composition and also existence of abnormal inclusions for specification and confirmation of any given disease and also for dynamics of development of a disease and purpose of effective therapy.
Fecal contents are formed at advance of a lump of food (khimus) from a mouth to the anal channel on a digestive tract. In stool it is possible to find particles of undigested products, fecal pigments, epithelial cells of various areas of intestines various microorganisms, to determine their content and quantity. Having carefully studied appearance a calla, its contents, availability or lack of slime, property and structure, chemical, biochemical and physical indicators, the laboratory assistant will make the corresponding conclusion on the basis of which the attending physician will most precisely establish a cause of illness and will appoint the most effective treatment.
When appoint a koprogramma
The research a calla is necessary for obtaining full information on work of digestive organs. Therefore the koprogramma is appointed at diseases of digestive tract, dysfunction of digestive system, violations of work of a pancreas, at violations of production of bile and new growths in intestines.
Indications to carrying out a koprogramma also is existence of the following problems:
- pathological processes of digestive tract;
- duodenum diseases,
- parasitic defeats of an organism, including helminthic invasions,
- inflammatory and infectious processes,
- dysfunctions of a pancreas, liver and gall bladder,
- oncological diseases of internals.
It is recommended to carry out a koprogramma several times: before treatment - for identification of a cause of illness and confirmation of the diagnosis and after treatment to reveal, it was how effective therapy is appointed.
Also scatological researches allow to detect the dysbacteriosis which is characterized by violation of a ratio of normal and pathogenic microorganisms at which significant increase in the last is observed.
How to be prepared for a research
If the koprogramma is appointed in advance, it is necessary to be prepared correctly for delivery of the analysis and to exclude factors which can affect correctness of the analysis. Therefore before an intake of the studied material (calla) it is necessary to adhere to a certain diet, having excluded fat, smoked, salty products from a diet. Also there are restrictions and on use of some medicamentous medicines, for example, of laxative and antibacterial means. Critical days at women are also capable to change "correctness" of the analysis therefore it is impossible to hand over kcal on the analysis in the period of periods. The reliability of a research is affected also by the calla made before a fence an enema. Therefore it is necessary to remember that collecting material for a koprogramma is carried out only after natural depletion of intestines.
Before a fence a calla it is necessary to perform hygienic procedures, to urinate (to release a bladder), by means of detergents to execute a toilet of intimate zones then to rinse genitals and anal pass warm (it is better boiled) water.
The material intake for a research is carried out in a special sterile container (it is on sale in pharmacies). For convenience on a cover of capacity the small rake which takes kcal is attached. For objectivity of a research it is necessary to take several samples a calla from its different parts. The total amount of material for the analysis has to be about a half of a teaspoon.
Fence a calla at children
If it is necessary to investigate stool of children, the algorithm of a fence is similar to the aforesaid.
If the child is able to use a pot, wait until it empties intestines then collect in a special container a few calla. But do not forget before putting the kid on a pot, carefully to wash up the container with detergent, then to process boiled water and to wipe dry.
For collecting stool at the baby it is necessary to use reusable diapers or an oilcloth and to wait until the kid empties the intestines.
To receive reliable results, do not allow hit in urine kcal. For this purpose it is possible to use special mochepriyemnik who fasten to a body of the kid in a genital. During a toilet, urine will be going to the place specially allotted for this purpose and will not affect quality of the studied material. If it is difficult to collect kcal at the kid for the analysis, try to make it by means of a mochepriyemnik. It is natural that it will be necessary to fix it around an anus.
What will tell results of a koprologiya about
- At inspection by results of a koprogramma, having compared the received indicators to norm, it is possible to reveal violation of functions of work of digestive tract and internals. In particular, are estimated:
- microbiological indicators of intestines,
- enzymatic activity of a pancreas,
- speed of passing of food,
- the digesting ability of a stomach and intestines,
- pathological changes of digestive organs,
- existence of parasites in an organism,
- possible inflammations and bleedings.
At a repeated koprogramma the effectiveness of the chosen methods of treatment and the appointed therapy is defined.
Koprogramma reflects researches on a big number of indicators which to understand actually not so difficult as it seems at first sight. Usually it is specified in the prepared table of researches such parameters as an indicator, result and norm.
When studying properties of stool the main attention is paid to the following microscopic parameters:
- soluble protein,
- yodofilny flora,
- neutral fat,
- connecting fibers,
- starch (extracellular and intracellular),
- muscle fibers,
- fatty acids,
- vegetable cellulose,
- barmy mushrooms,
- eggs of helminths.
Within the macroscopic research study:
- reaction to the hidden blood.
Interpretation of results
The absence in analyses a calla of soluble protein, blood, yodofilny flora, bilirubin, neutral fat, muscle and connecting fibers, fatty acids, vegetable cellulose, the detrit, barmy mushrooms and helminths meets standard. Also insignificant presence of slime, connecting and muscle fibers, leukocytes and soaps is allowed. At babies and newborn children aged up to three months a small amount of bilirubin and neutral fat can be observed. From 75 to 350 mg (daily dose) of stercobilin belong to normal indicators of researches contents of 20-40 mol/kg of ammonia, and.
The aberration speaks about possible problems. So, presence of soluble protein indicates possible inflammations mucous, polyps and new growths. Parts of blood – about internal bleedings in departments of intestines. The amount of slime exceeding norm demonstrates inflammatory processes in intestines and infections in intestines. The increased content of stercobilin indicates bleedings and anemias caused in this regard, the indicator below norm demonstrates impassability of bilious channels. Existence in stool of bilirubin reports about violations of speed of digestion and passing of food, dysbacteriosis and acute inflammations.
Violations of a zhelcheotdeleniye and lipolitichesky function of a pancreas are demonstrated by presence of neutral fat, about decrease in sekretorny function of a pancreas and stomach tell muscle and connecting fibers. Starch indicates problems with a small intestine, presence of yodofilny flora and yeast - on dysbacteriosis. The increased concentration of soaps demonstrates inflammation of a pancreas and possible formation of stones in a gall bladder. Leukocytes and the increased amount of ammonia indicate inflammatory processes in intestines, fatty acids – on malfunction of a zhelcheotdeleniye. Tells presence in Calais of eggs of helminths about a parasitic invasion.