All know that the connections known as proteins, fats and carbohydrates are vital for a human body. And if with the first two types of substances many though in general, but are familiar, then carbohydrates remain a certain riddle. Meanwhile, their role for health is huge. We learn in what it is shown.
Description and general characteristic
Carbohydrates are organic compounds which part molecules of carbon, oxygen and hydrogen are. Are synthesized with the participation of carbon dioxide and water which interaction strengthens sunlight.
Chemists know that behind this name there is a big mass of substances, many of which significantly differ according to contents (carbonyl group) and hydroxyl communications.
If to depart from terminology, then it will turn out that carbohydrates act as an invariable element of cages and tissues of all live on Earth. Biologists counted that the main share of biosubstance is the share of them.
In a human body carbohydrates regulate exchange of proteins and fats, together with them form the vital hormones and enzymes. Moreover, such connections take part in formation of structures of DNA, RNA and ATP, accumulate an energy stock, feed a brain, a cardiovascular system and other bodies.
Also positively influence a cardiovascular system: carrots, pumpkin, spinach, parsley, green onions, celery, grapes, raspberry, sea-buckthorn, sea cabbage, caviar, cod-liver oil, milk, eggs.
More clearly to understand a role of these connections, we will pay attention to their classification.
Types and main functions
Carbohydrates consist of separate saccharides to which the part of peculiar bricks is assigned. Their quantity also became that sign which allowed to refer connections of this group to different types.
Important! Some substances like fructose are acquired practically without insulin participation — in small doses they are resolved at diabetes.
The main lines are di - and polysaccharides and also oligosakharidny substances.
Two molecules are connected by a glikozidny sheaf, and at reaction with water they break up to two monosakharidny parts everyone. Some versions have the restoring properties (for example, maltose fission products).
This group acts as the main source of carbohydrates in our organism. Are ranked as it:
- lactose, it milk sugar. At deficiency of the splitting lactase the intolerance of milk and products from it is observed;
- the maltose of the malt nature which is taking part in exchange of enzymes and accumulation of the energy necessary at big physical activities;
- sucrose which when splitting is divided into valuable fructose and glucose. Thus the content of sugar in blood is normalized. It can be postponed as spare nutrient.
Also, the maltose is in such products as: dyagilevy and white honey, motherwort
In the sum these substances ensure normal functioning of all main bodies and systems. There are in this row also other connections — a tsellobioza and a nigeroza, a rutinoza and a tregaloza, but their concentration much less.
They are formed by connection of different number of saccharides: from 2 to 10. Strictly speaking, also disaccharides belong here, but nevertheless oligo-substances are emitted in a separate class.
The fact is that often they are a product of synthesis of polytypic molecules, as caused their building, and also functions.
Whether you know? About 80% of dry mass of all plants are the share of carbohydrates.
The most raspostranenny are such substances as:
- erloza (all contain three basic molecules);
- tetrasaccharides are presented by stachyose and acarbose;
- more saturated structure at a manneopentoza (5 molecules) and a manneohexoza (6).
The most part of these substances are so-called reserve carbohydrates which are used when it is necessary to restore power balance or protective opportunities of an organism.
Their molecules can consist of dozens, hundreds, and even thousands of monosaccharides. Names of such structures very famous for all. It:
- the cellulose normalizing work of a stomach and intestinal ways. It improves a metabolism, thereby reducing risk of cardiovascular diseases and a hypertension;
- the pectins collected from residues of galacturonic acid. The stomach does not acquire them, but after all the advantage is very notable — excess cholesterol and carcinogens is removed. These properties are used for prevention of serious violations of blood circulation and even cancers;
- starch which long carbon chain allows the person to keep mobility and vigor long;
- from starch receive maltodextrin. It is a part of sports additives, helps to increase weight and to improve work of a GIT (at contact with food enzymes the mix which got into a stomach is acquired easier).
Important! Most of all pectins contain in fresh fruit.
Of course, it is not all polysaccharides, and only the most important. But from other weight one more substance of the same nature, namely a glycogen is emitted. It is unique the fact that it meets only in an organism. Being postponed in muscles and a liver, creates a powerful power reserve. Helps at an acute shortage of glucose by which peak loadings are followed.
Learn how products rich with polysaccharide influence an organism: cabbage, peanut, fresh juice, meat, fish, cheese
What are useful?
Nutritionists and chemists note that also the oligosaccharides including 3 and more sugar units will be the most useful poly-. They are called still complex carbohydrates.
The value of such substances is that they are longer acquired: on it 3.5-6 hours during which the person feels satiety leave. Besides the products rich with difficult connections deliver a set of vitamins, minerals and fibers in an organism.
Clean single sugar, on the contrary, are considered as harmful. On that is the reason — owing to simple structure they do not need to be split and digested, instead monosaccharides at once begin to exhaust a reserve of other nutrients necessary for their metabolism.
Proceeding from it, nutritionists advise to make a diet so that 85% of day need for carbohydrates became covered with polysaccharides.
Products are sources of carbohydrates
After acquaintance with the main types of these substances there is a question — what products contain any given connections.
Here it must be kept in mind one more nuance. It is that the speed of splitting of the carbohydrates which got to an organism is defined by a concrete indicator — the glycemic index. This figure differs depending on a type of food.
Whether you know? As the separate science with all attributes chemistry was allocated in many respects with efforts of Antoine Lavoisier who in 1777 put forward the oxygen theory of burning. For that time it was related to scientific revolution.
Sources of fast substances are products which GI exceeds 69 units (everything that gave smaller number, is considered slow, that is useful).
Most quicker the stomach acquires corn syrup and beer (their index makes impressive 113 and 108 units). 100 and more wheat and rice syrups, dates, starch, glucose and syrup on its basis show.
If to be guided by indicators of other products of this group, then the received list will be such:
- 90 and more: honey, rice flour, white loaf without gluten participation. Right there and potatoes — baked, fried, big-heads, the instant and also received from it starch and a dextrin;
- 80-90: muesli, home-made mashed potatoes, a rice pudding, popcorn, corn flakes and starch, turnip, white loaf, carrots after heat treatment;
- 70-80: pastries in the form of bagels, donuts and steering-wheels, a biscuit and wafers, milk chocolate, a lasagna, marrow caviar and watermelons, corn porridge and white loaf (baguette).
All these products recommend to use moderately, having whenever possible minimized their quantity. The exception becomes unless for potatoes — besides the most valuable starch it contains the mass of other necessary substances.
Least of all carbohydrates in apples, oranges, grapefruits
It is better to consider products which GI makes less than dividing 69 units upside-down (from smaller figures to big).
Here superiority behind tomatoes, a white cabbage, broccoli and onions which are acquired most longer (their index is equal in numerical expression to 10).
In an interval between 12 and 15 units ketchup and tomato juice, olives and olives, blackcurrant and soy were located.
Important! Vegetables and fruit, in addition, deliver in an organism and valuable phytonutrients. These active connections remove inflammations, regulate a metabolism and at the cellular level slow down aging.
Concede them cucumbers and apricots (20) a little. Other products can be referred to the following categories:
- 22-29: sea cabbage, prunes, premium sausages;
- 30-39:10% cream, milk and sausage, pasta from firm grades of wheat and also bread with bran. Perhaps, presence at this number of wine will seem surprise;
- 40-49: here are presented only red beans (40) after which with a big separation there are eggs and grape juice (on 48);
- 50-59: jam, cheeses (feta and fused);
- 60-69: compotes, rye bread, boiled potatoes. Closest to a treasured boundary there was a porridge whose GI made 66 units.
Such dishes and products are extremely important for health. The task is facilitated by their availability — for example, many grow up the same tomatoes at the dacha and sour-milk products on sale in prosperity.
Also carry to slow carbohydrates: pearl-barley porridge, kefir, cottage cheese, peaches and dried apricots, buckwheat cereal, persimmon, coffee without sugar, bananas, rice, mayonnaise, melons, beet
Daily requirement and norm
Day requirement miscalculates with a careful eye to age, nature of work and weight of the person. So, to middle-aged office clerk there will be enough 5 g of carbohydrates on 1 kg.
The person who is constantly dealing with loadings will need already 8 g on the same weight. And the more efforts, the daily dose of the carbohydrate necessary for normal functioning of bodies will be bigger — the direct dependence is available here.
Let's give concrete numbers which representatives of different gender and age groups need to mean. The first figure designates age, the second — the need for grams.
Whether you know? In a human body more than 700 various enzymes work.
- 18-29: 378;
- 30-39: 365;
- 40-59: 344;
Easy physical activity:
- 18-29: 412;
- 30-39: 400;
- 40-59: 380;
Work of average weight:
- 18-29: 440;
- 30-39: 426;
- 40-59: 406;
Hard physical work:
- 18-29: 518;
- 30-39: 574;
- 40-59: 546.
For elderly men 70 years norm are more senior 302 g of carbohydrates are considered.
- 18-29: 324;
- 30-39: 310;
- 40-59: 297;
Easy physical activity:
- 18-29: 351;
- 30-39: 337;
- 40-59: 323;
Work of average weight:
- 18-29: 371;
- 30-39: 358;
- 40-59: 344;
Hard physical work:
- 18-29: 441;
- 30-39: 427;
- 40-59: 406.
Separately about athletes
The biggest need for carbohydrates — at people whose organism works to the limit (and even behind it). Daily trainings and constant loads accelerate exchange processes, and any organic matter collected in cages or laid in fabrics is used. Especially brightly it is visible just on carbohydrates which reserves are very modest.
Important! Morning trainings begin 1-3 hours later after a low-fat high-calorific breakfast which has to cover on average 65% of day norm of carbohydrates.
To fill their shortage, men need 616-686 g of such connections. For women this rate is 478-546 g. The concrete figure depends on type of loadings (the power consumption at the weightlifter and, for example, the sprinter will differ considerably).
Shortage and surplus
The nature took care of that concentration of the main carbohydrates (especially glucose) was in blood at the acceptable level. In an organism of healthy people there are reserves of these substances which expense at a usual daily routine depends on meal or phases of wakefulness a little. The exception is made unless athletes.
But any failures in work of nervous or endocrine system involve redistribution of carbohydrates that is shown in their surplus or an acute shortage.
The stable surplus of glucose which becomes kind of a magnet for other substances leads to a hyperglycemia. This state caused by surplus of sugar in blood.
Act as its signs:
- general weakness;
- constant thirst;
- the lowered arterial blood pressure;
- sudden appearance of a skin itch;
- headache attacks, it is frequent accompanied by nausea;
- plentiful exit of urine.
Whether you know? The first insulin injections were made in January, 1922. Knew about this hormone in 30 years before, but the problem was to clean connection to a state, safe for the person.
One more symptom call an unpleasant smell from a mouth, similar to acetone.
Similar manifestations are often observed at the people suffering from partial dysfunction of kidneys or a liver, violations of hormonal balance, increase in a thyroid gland.
Continuous increase in level of carbohydrates can lead to turning of production of insulin that breaks an energy balance of cages and fabrics. Serious diseases (are as a result started up to polytypic hepatitis and cirrhosis).
Will get rid of a headache to you will help: melissa, chicory, ivan-tea, mint, hawthorn, pomegranate, celery, bearberry.
The deficiency of carbohydrates is distinguished on characteristic symptoms too:
- At primary stage the weakness and drowsiness are felt. At the same time trembling of hands and the increased perspiration is noticeable.
- The pallor of skin, increasingly frequent spasms, periodic delay of heart are considered as more disturbing signals. In some cases reaches dizziness.
- Prostration against the background of the speeded-up pulse is the most dangerous. At this moment it is necessary to eat immediately a portion of a product rich with fast substances.
Important! The lower limit of content of sugar in blood makes 1.7-2.2 mmol/litre whereas 5.2-5.5 mmol on the same volume are considered as a dangerous top side.
Having noticed that at least one of these signs is observed regularly, see a doctor — perhaps, the reason is not only in metabolism violation.
Councils and recommendations about the use
Considering the menu, many are interested as it is correct to provide an organism with carbohydrates. That they brought a benefit maximum, pay attention to highlights:
- to resupply such substances till a lunch. Just at this time they are acquired and processed best of all. At later meal the probability that simple saccharides will remind of themselves excess weight increases.
- Include in a diet cereals, oats, bean cultures, vegetables, fruit and low-fat dairy products. It is a basis of healthy food. Their action can be added with the small volume of potatoes, flour products (only from white flour) or fruit juice.
- And here it is better to refuse favourite candies, ice cream or chips. The same concerns also a number of drinks (sparkling water, beer, too sweet tea or coffee).
- It is more than activity — the inactive way of life conducts to a surplus got into a stomach and fabrics of substances.
- Naturally, refusal of alcohol. Even in small doses it oppresses valuable enzymes that immediately affects work of a liver and pancreas.
- Those who fights against excess weight unambiguously should refuse fast saccharides in any kind (firm or liquid).
- Avoid extremes like sharp transition to a bezuglevodny diet. Not only that it leads to loss of vitamins and celluloses, so also slows down processing of amino acids. In such mode the bodies work literally very hard.
Whether you know? Surprisingly, but when the person reddens (for example, from a heat or constraint), his stomach works also — the color of a wall becomes more saturated.
Now you represent, than carbohydrates from where they undertake and why it is important to hold them normal are important. We hope, these data will help our readers with fight for health and beauty. Cheerfulness and joyful moments every day!