Not to water the earth with buckets and watering cans, not to drag it from the next reservoir, not to swing manually from the well and not to buy clear water in shops, the household pumping station is necessary. In cottages, at dachas and in owner-occupied dwellings without the centralized water supply the pumping station significantly increases comfort of accommodation, allowing to organize competently watering and to provide water supply for economic domestic needs.
The majority of household pumping stations are equipped by accumulative operation principle. That is, the pump provides water supply from well or the well in tank store. In this tank the special sensor of height of water which as required turns on the pump and switches off it is installed. This scheme allows to have sufficient reserve of precious liquid without excessive electricity consumption all the time, operating pumping equipment in the "sparing" mode.
When choosing the pumping station pay attention to the following parameters:
- device of the pumping station, its type, look and functionality;
- volume of the store (hydroaccumulator) and material of its production;
- power and performance of pumping equipment;
- water pressure which needs to be provided.
At first sight, costs of installation of the full-fledged pumping station seem unjustified. – water supply in the crane also the simple pump of centrifugal or vibration type can execute the main function.
But in practice the pumping station has the mass of advantages, in comparison with the simple pump:
- The pumping station can be rather easily and is simply installed in any place and also quickly dismantled. The station is the completely collected and adjusted system for which mounting and dismantling special or highly professional knowledge and abilities are not necessary.
- The pumping station is universal. It can be used for water intake from any source: from well, from the well, from open reservoir or from the tank.
- Each pumping station is completed with the water store (hydroaccumulator) which will be able to provide uninterrupted pressure of water even in case of power outage.
- In case of water intake from the well, the pumping station can lift water even from wells with the minimum diameter of casing pipe.
- Reliability and durability. Because the pump turns on only as required when the saved-up water supply comes to end, the term of its service repeatedly increases. And breakages will occur much less often.
As it has been already told, pumping stations consist of three basic elements: the pump, tank store and the operating relay combined with the control unit. When choosing the station it is recommended to pay attention to availability of some protective functions allowing to prevent premature breakages of pumping equipment. Treat them:
- protection against the dry course when in source for any reasons there was no water;
- the back valve which is not allowing water to follow from the hydroaccumulator back in source;
- the manometer showing water pressure in tank and allowing to find leakages in it;
- the preliminary filters protecting the pump from sand and dirt;
- fine filters for receiving potable water.
If the station is going to be used only during summer season, it is possible to choose manually controlled cheaper model. For year-round use it is recommended to buy models with completely automatic control.
Modern pumping stations are very diverse on design and the device. To choose optimum model, it is necessary to understand all variety of stations, to know advantages and shortcomings of each look and type.
By the principle of suction of water of the station can be with built in or with the portable ejector. The ejector is the tip of suction pipe forcing water pressure in the pipeline.
Models with the portable ejector lowered directly in water source can pump it from depth to 50 m. They differ in the low noise level allowing to establish them directly in the house. Among minuses it is possible to call high sensitivity to pollution in water and also dependence of pump capacity on well depth.
Choosing system with the portable ejector, it is necessary to prepare for additional expenses. First, in connection with higher price of the equipment. Secondly, due to the need of installation of two pipes: giving and recirculation.
Devices with the built-in ejector located directly on the pump can pump water from depth only 8 m and too rustle during the work that allows to place them only in certain rooms. On the other hand, they are not afraid of sand and dirt and also presence of air at water at all.
As the accumulative device the pumping stations differ on model with tank store and with the hydroaccumulator.
Accumulative tanks are tanks big (up to 100 l) volume, located on attics of buildings. The pump pumps water in tank, and then it from it disperses on pipes. Level of liquid is measured by means of the valve float. Are very economic as the pump turns on only at drainage of tank. From shortcomings it is allocated: danger to flood the house, impressive dimensions of the store and also the small pressure of water in cranes depending on residue of water in the store. Because of the minuses in the modern world are used seldom.
The hydroaccumulator is the membrane tank differing in the compact sizes, the guaranteed protection against leakages and opportunity to hold stable water pressure. Pressure in it can be adjusted easily that gives the chance to install the hydroaccumulator though in separate extension though in the basement. From minuses It should be noted higher cost, low (to 25 l) water supply, more frequent turning on of the pump and insistence to water supply system. In particular, the pipeline and all its elements have to be quite strong to hold high pressure and to cope with hydroblows.
There are absolutely simple stations which do not have any tank. Their operating pressure adjuster is tuned into turning on of the pump every time when there is need for water when the crane opens or the toilet bowl tank is filled. The lack of the accumulative tank sharply reduces the cost and dimensions of such stations. At the same time the ability to provide the good pressure and pressure of water remains at the level of expensive installations.
But such models cannot provide reserve in case of, for example, short-term blackout. Frequent turning on of the pump prematurely wears out it, it serves less and often breaks. Besides, all elements of water supply system, especially its feature connectors, have to resist well to hydroblows which will inevitably happen at each turning on of the pump.
As water supply source the pumps are submersible and surface. Submersible pumps fall directly to water source (well or the well) and allow to lift water from depth from 10 m and more. Besides, these models are famous for the reliability, simplicity of mounting and profitability, however, are much more expensive than surface.
Surface models are located above height of water and for its fence have the attached hose or pipe. Their design is simple, cheap and convenient under repair, but units of this kind do not allow to lift water from depth more than 9 m and also demand installation in the heated and well ventilated rooms.
That the pumping station well provided the house and the parcel with water, it is necessary to decide on the required technical characteristics in advance.
For example, one-storey building with 2-4 residents with need to provide uninterrupted water supply and water depth to 8 m requires the 0.8-1.2 pump kvt*chas, the 10-20 l hydroaccumulator. At the same time the performance of the station will be 4 CBM/hour.
Water supply on the second and higher floors requires more powerful pump (from 2 kvt*chas), and for the bigger number of residents – also larger hydroaccumulator (40-50 l).
For watering of giving, small by the sizes, during summer season there will be quite enough inexpensive station with a performance up to 0.5 CBM/hour with the hydroaccumulator to 25 l. For watering of the large parcels the station on 0.6-1 CBM/hour with volume of hydroaccumulator up to 50 l is necessary.
Detailed technical characteristics of each pumping station can be learned from the application guide or technical data sheet. As a rule, all producers specify them on the first pages of instructions.