It is necessary to plan for ways to achievement of the goal, the solution of an objective correctly the actions, to choose the most profitable way and to accurately follow the drawn-up plan. The similar technique of action is called goal-setting and is applied in any sphere of life.
Goal-setting is a basis of many spheres of human life – from pedagogics and self-development before business and planning of family, social adaptation in society. There are also global spheres in which actions are based on goal-setting – formation of domestic and foreign policy of the state, economic development. On a question that such goal-setting, different people can answer differently. But there are general rules, a peculiar algorithm of formation of this concept which knowledge can be useful to each of us. The one who knows fundamentals of this science, advance tactics will be able to achieve much quicker the objectives, to solve the most difficult vital and career tasks.
General concept of goal-setting
Goal-setting – one of terms of sociology. Concepts are the cornerstone the certain systems of values individual for each direction and the person. On their basis the way conducting to the solution of an objective, achievement of the goal is formed.
In essence, goal-setting is the choice of a rational way, sometimes for achievement not of one purpose, but several, clashing among themselves or same. It is very important to find a solution which will allow to avoid mistakes, to control all events, not to allow emergence of unforeseen complications and circumstances. The technique is used in various areas:
- to pedagogics,
- state activity,
- to economy.
The neglect goal-setting, unwillingness to spend time for consideration of all aspects of a solvable task, search of a rational way is always wrapped in loss, a miss and failure. Really, on development of tactics of actions a lot of time – definition of importance of a task, its consideration can leave different aspects, search of optimum ways, the choice of one of them as the fastest or effective, selection of the command for its decision and alignment of forces. To pass each of these stages of goal-setting, means to provide success of an action – it is important to understand it.
Life is a management, and it is not important in what – in own development, in training of others, in government or the enterprise, the company. Goal-setting which main functions are is always the cornerstone of management:
- statement of one or several purposes,
- definition of tactics of their achievement,
- distribution of resources and main objectives,
- activity coordinating.
Similar planning considerably simplifies a task, makes it more available, reduces time expenditure by its decision. If necessary it is possible to make corrections to the developed tactics of achievement of the goal, in due time notifying on all of them participants of process, and not changing cardinally all plan.
Use of goal-setting in any field of activity helps to analyze at the same time large volumes of information, to make forecasts and to find optimum, faultless ways to achievement of the goal, to improve results and to have additional opportunities.
Goal-setting in pedagogics
The defining pedagogics element – the purpose, that is goal-setting is its integral part. Pedagogical activity is impossible without definition of main objectives, allocation among them significant and minor between which it is obligatory to eat interrelation, that is, each lesson is based on goal-setting.
When forming the direction of a way the teacher considers not only the narrowly targeted purposes of the subject, but also the inquiries of society, certain features of socialization characteristic of specific society, requirement and children, and their parents, considers the possibilities and estimates them. Pedagogical goal-setting surely includes the following stages:
- diagnostics of process of education of specific children's collective,
- the analysis of results of the taken measures and the activity,
- modeling of the main objectives and purposes,
- formation of collective process of goal-setting,
- drawing up and updating of the planned action program.
At the heart of all works of one of the best teachers – A.S Makarenko lies goal-setting. According to him, the teacher has to realize accurately what of the purposes of educational process are close, average and distant what of them give optimum prospects for development of the pupil and to use this analysis in the work.
Business and goal-setting
In business, management the goal-setting is a peculiar art of strategic character. Tactics of business management is much more important than practice, and it is proved by real examples of successful development of the enterprises of various directions, including both financial or information management, and production.
Initial problem of goal-setting in business – definition of short-term and long-term tasks, allocation from them the most significant and search of ways of their decision. It becomes on the basis of the fact that the head or group of heads wants to receive from development of the business (the enterprises, business). After main objectives are defined, the development stage of strategy of their achievement begins:
- analysis of resources of the enterprise,
- identification of the influencing external factors,
- assessment of real opportunities of concrete business,
- monitoring of possible risk,
- development of systems of control over main objectives,
- harmonization of strategy taking into account specifics of several tasks.
Goal-setting basis in business is formation of thinking about what objectives need to be achieved, but not how to reach them quicker. Instant success has to guard and indicate that the way was not thought accurately over, the goal-setting technique was not used.
Goal-setting in self-development
In self-development the goal-setting is a part of psychology. Processes of formation of the personal schedule including the worker, based on what objectives need to be achieved and what problems need to be solved become his main functions. It is very important to develop ability to find rational ways even in trifles, strategic thinking, even in household chores then career will begin to decide much quicker.
Goal-setting – the basis of any activity, and understanding, understanding of it will help to define that is necessary at present to develop and reach desirable tops. Besides, in the course of goal-setting the personal motivation to commission of any given actions, their expediency, importance degree for self-development is defined.
And experts in the field of personal growth, and psychologists recommend to conduct written fixing of the plan for self-development. It forms not only a basis of individual goal-setting, but also a peculiar motivation to action. You should not use someone's experience as a guide to action, the person is individual, as well as his purposes, desires and aspirations. It is necessary to follow that tactics which was developed, if necessary adjusting it at emergence of new tasks.
History and goal-setting
Goal-setting is the cornerstone also of development of the world, a civilization, all states without exception as is base of administrative, pedagogical and economic activity. Any country will not be able to develop if its government does not designate the main objectives promoting increase in its level in any direction and will not develop the activity tactics leading to their achievement.
Features of the state goal-setting are that it has to be approved not only a top management, but also the people, the main objectives conduct to the solution of simple problems:
- to increase in the standard of living,
- to improvement of infrastructure,
- to economic development,
- to increase in rates of production.
The state goal-setting – process the most difficult as it is influenced by significant negative factors – huge amount of subjective opinions, a set of changeable and contradictory tasks, periodic uncertainty in functioning of the state, its dependence on external factors and influence of world politics, economy, crisis situations and natural cataclysms.
The state goal-setting is formed in the form of a tree of the purposes for which as nutrient medium the society is specified. Experts call him an obrazovatel of a tree and the coordinator of goal-setting in development of the country, determinant of degree of importance of each of the put, designated tasks.