Scientists ask a question of a possibility of life of people on Mars recently. And in the future, at the regular piloted flights, starts are planned from the surface of the Moon. Therefore calculation of distances between Mars and the Moon is so important.

## The changing distances

Definite answer to a question how many kilometers from the Moon to Mars, no. All planets are in the constant movement. Orbits of Earth and the Moon in comparison with distance to other celestial bodies are incomparably small and are considered as one system of planets Earth Moon. The orbit of Mars is considerably extended and in relation to Earth has a considerable difference in distance.

Mars can approach Earth to 55 million kilometers. But on the maximum removal it will appear at distance of 400 million kilometers.

At starts of satellites of the Mariner series, scientists had to make calculations, considering all distances and speeds of the movement of planets that in accuracy to get into an orbit of Mars.

In this case quite insignificant (on average the radius of 380 thousand km) and also the different value has the sizes of an orbit of the Moon. Therefore at calculation of distance to Mars from the Moon, at first calculate distance to Earth. Then subtract that distance to an orbit of the satellite on which it is at the moment.

Mars has a so-called favorable opposition when the planet it is visible from Earth extraordinary big and bright. Such opposition was observed in August, 2003. Then the distance to the red planet made 55 million 800 thousand kilometers. If to take away distance from the Moon to Earth for that time, the distance from the Moon to Mars of equal 55 million 420 thousand kilometers will turn out. And here it is also necessary to do adjustment for the eccentricity of an orbit of the Moon, the difference between a perigee and apogee of which makes 42 thousand kilometers.

## Minimum and maximum distance

Total, the minimum distance in the closest points of the Moon and Mars provided that the Moon will be in apogee and from the planet Mars at this time, will make 55 million 399 thousand kilometers. The longest distance to Mars will be when it is on other side of the Sun in an aphelion of the orbit, and the Moon will be on the line in side of Earth, opposite to Mars and the Sun, in apogee at this time. In this case there will be the maximum distance between Mars and the Moon. It will make 400 million 405 thousand kilometers.

When sending the first people to Mars, scientists should approach a question of calculation of the movement of planets on an orbit carefully. If there is for some reason a failure, then it is necessary to postpone start until August, 2050.

Calculation of distance from the Moon to Mars is necessary for scientists in the future to launch spacecrafts with crew onboard from the surface of the Moon. It considerably will reduce the price of missions of people to the red planet.