Works of many researchers are devoted to a phrase. But also now there are controversial issues: the offer or a phrase is the main unit of syntax? What communication has to be between phrase components? Let's consider the standard distinctive signs of a phrase.
1. The phrase is characterized by nominative function, and the offer of communicative. Example. Wooden table (phrase). The wooden table stood in the living room (offer).
2. On grammatical structure the offer is more difficult unit in which there is predicative unit (both principal parts of the sentence or one of them). The phrase includes two (less often three) a component.
3. The phrase has no intonational completeness and the finished sense. For example: ""I do not have all that I love, but I love everything that I have"". In this offer it is possible to select such phrases: is not present at me; there is no that; all that; what I love; I love everything; is at me.
4. The phrase gives the developed name something, and the offer is more capacious unit and contains the message about something. Example. Long-awaited meeting (phrase). Yesterday the long-awaited meeting with teachers and friends took place.
5. Components of a phrase are connected on sense by subordinative communication which is carried out by means of the termination or the termination and a pretext. In each phrase there is the main and dependent word. The main component on sense and grammatical does not depend on the second word to which it is possible to raise a question. On sense and grammatical dependent word is subordinated to the main thing. From what part of speech expressed the main word, phrases are divided into several groups: - nominal (two books, students Ivanov, fourth-year students); - pro-nominal, i.e. the main word is the pronoun (something interesting, someone from us); - verbal, i.e. verbs, participles and adverbial participles can be the main word (to write beautifully, the connected hat); - adverbial (it is far from the family); - word of category of state (several ways).
6. In the offer it is necessary to define limits of phrases correctly: - phraseological units (it is impossible to idle, i.e. it is impossible to idle) and analytical forms (the most beautiful can be a part of simple phrases (adjective degree) the city); - in a difficult phrase there can be a different subordinative communication between words, but it easily is divided into simple (we will go home soon – we will go soon, we will go home); - the main or dependent word it can be widespread (with enthusiasm to read the book, to read the interesting book); - the combined phrases contain not one main word (with enthusiasm (as?) to read interesting (what?) book).