The vacuole-membrane bubbles in cage cytoplasm filled with cellular juice. In plant cells of a vacuole occupy up to 90% of volume. Animal cages have temporary vacuoles which occupy no more than 5% of their volume. Functions by a vacuole depend on in what cage they are.
The main function by a vacuole - implementation of interrelation between organelles, transport of substances on a cage.
Functions by a vacuole of plant cells
Vacuoles is one of the most important organelles of a cage and performs a set of functions among which: water absorption, coloring giving to a cage, a conclusion from exchange of toxic substances, storage of nutrients. Besides, vacuoles of some plants produce lacteal juice and help to split "old" parts of a cage.
Plays a major role of vacuoles in absorption by a cell of water. By osmotic pressure, water arrives in vacuoles. As a result of it in a cage there is tourist's mountain pressure causing stretching of cages during growth. Osmotic absorption of water is important also for maintenance of the general water regime of a plant and also for photosynthesis process.
In a vacuole there are dyes called anthocyans. Coloring of flowers, fruits, leaves, buds, root crops of plants depends on them. Vacuoles brings toxic substances and some secondary metabolites out of exchange. As waste serve calcium oxalate crystals. They are postponed in vacuoles in the form of crystals of a different form. The role of secondary metabolites is not up to the end studied. Perhaps alkaloids as a metabolism by-product, like tannins, with their astringent taste, push away herbivores that prevents eating of these plants. Vacuoles reserve nutrients: mineral salts, sucrose, various organic acids (apple, acetic, lemon, etc.), amino acids, proteins. If necessary cytoplasm of a cage can use these substances. In vacuoles of cages of some plants lacteal juice is produced. So, lacteal juice of the Brazilian hevea contains the enzymes and substances necessary for rubber synthesis. Vacuoles sometimes contain hydrolytic enzymes, and then vacuoles work as lysosomes. So, they are capable to split proteins, carbohydrates, fats, nucleinic acids, phytohormones, phytoncides, participate in splitting of "old" parts of a cage.
Functions by a vacuole of animal cages
The pulsing (sokratitelny) vacuoles at freshwater protozoa serve for osmotic regulation of a cage. As concentration of substances in river water is lower, than concentration of substances in cages of protozoa, sokratitelny vacuoles absorb water and vice versa, the surplus of water is removed outside by reductions. In cages of some multicellular invertebrates (sponges, coelenterates, ciliary hearts, some mollusks), capable to intracellular digestion, and in a body of some unicells the digestive vacuoles containing digestive enzymes are formed. Digestive vacuoles at the highest animals are formed in special cages — phagocytes.