About 100,000 types of living organisms enter the Kingdom of mushrooms. It is supposed that in fact them much more. Earlier mushrooms carried to the lowest plants, but now the special place in the organic world is allocated to them.
1. The main feature of mushrooms putting them on the special place among living organisms is that, without being either plants, or animals they, nevertheless, have similarity both with the first, and with the second.
2. Mushrooms are heterotrophs, i.e. do not synthesize organic chemistry, and I consume it already in finished form, they are not capable to photosynthesis as they do not contain a chlorophyll, chitin is a part of their cellular walls that, as we know, is characteristic of a skeleton of arthropods. Mushrooms are capable to reserve carbohydrates in the form of a glycogen and to remove the final products of a metabolism – these signs make them similar to animals.
3. At the same time mushrooms are not mobile, have the cellular structure of covers, breathe oxygen, synthesize vitamins and hormones, eat by absorption, grow at the expense of a top part, breed disputes - it is lines of plants.
4. Scientists found out that at all their similarity, mushrooms and plants came from different groups of the microorganisms living once in water i.e. evolutionary two of these groups have no straight line. Mushrooms – some of the most ancient eukaritichny organisms. They can have both the monocelled and multicellular building, but anyway, their cages contain the kernels limited to a cover.
5. Mushrooms have also special, only to them inherent lines. Their vegetative body represents a mycelium or a mycelium which is capable to grow beyond all bounds, during all life. The mycelium is divided into substrate and air functional zones. The substrate zone is formed by hyphas – branched tubular filamentary structures. It provides attachment of a mushroom to substrate and also a possibility of absorption of water and nutrients by them, and their transfer to the air zone of a mycelium located above.
6. Hyphas have no expressed cellular building. Their protoplasm can or not be divided at all, or be divided cross septa - partitions - into compartments. This option reminds the ordinary cellular building, but education sept, is not followed by division of kernels. Usually in the center of a partition there is time through which protoplasm can flow in the next compartment. In each compartment along a hypha one or several kernels are located. Not divided hyphas are called neseptirovanny or nechlenisty. Divided – chlenisty or septirovanny. The air zone of a mycelium is a fruit body, a mushroom.
7. Mushrooms sexual and sexless breed in the ways. In the second case the reproduction happens sites of a mycelium or even its separate cages. Perhaps also budding and reproduction by the disputes which are formed in a fruit body of a mushroom. At sexual reproduction some types have a cell fusion on the ends of hyphas.
8. On a way of food the mushrooms can be saprofita, symbionts, parasites and predators. Some mushrooms use only ready organic chemistry, others synthesize some part of nutrients independently. Saprofita decompose organic chemistry before receiving simple inorganic substances by means of the enzymes emitted by them. Mushrooms parasites get into the owner's organism through damages, causing sometimes his death, and then eat what from it remained. Mushrooms catch predators the nematodes and amoebas living in the soil by means of loops on hyphas or sticky thickenings on their ends. Mushrooms symbionts coexist with some both highest, and lowest plant species.