Rational knowledge

Rational knowledge

Knowledge is difficult process in which it is possible to allocate two levels: sensual and rational.

Rational knowledge is process of cognition of the world around by means of natural perception and cogitative activity. Forms of rational knowledge possess several general characteristics:

  • reflect certain general signs and properties of cognizable objects;
  • are abstracted from single features of objects;
  • are caused by the point of view of the subject on cognizable reality (and also a configuration of the system device of empirical cognition and the applied informative means, such as observation, experimenting and information processing);
  • expressions of a thought are directly connected with language (in broad understanding).

Main forms of rational knowledge

Refer the following types of cogitative activity to the main forms of rational knowledge: concept, judgment and conclusion and also more irregular shapes, hypotheses and theories.

  1. The concept by means of abstraction generalizes objects of a certain sort, a look or a class of set of signs. In concepts is absent sensual and evident.
  2. In judgment something is approved or denied by means of communication of concepts.
  3. Conclusion is result of a reasoning in the course of which of one or several judgments new is logically removed.
  4. The hypothesis arises as the assumption expressed in concepts and giving a possible or impossible preexplanation for any fact (or the sum of the facts). The hypotheses confirmed with practical knowledge form the bases of the theory.
  5. The theory is the highest form of the organization of rational knowledge. The theory reflects the system of complete ideas of existence and communications of any given object or the phenomenon.

Forms of rational knowledge

In rational knowledge it is possible to allocate special ways or methods, quite certain. The method in general is the system of the rules, requirements and instructions giving the chance to investigate, in a certain way, any object.

The sum of the applied methods can be determined as methodology.

It is necessary to understand that it is possible to carry to rational methods of knowledge both theoretical, and empirical.

Treat empirical methods:

  • feeling;
  • perception;
  • representation;
  • observation (purposeful action without intervention observing);
  • experiment (the phenomena are studied in the conditions which are specially created);
  • measurement;
  • comparison.

Application of empirical methods in rational knowledge is impossible as even for observation primary theoretical bases, at least are necessary for the choice of an object.

It is possible to carry to theoretical methods:

  • analysis;
  • synthesis;
  • classification;
  • abstraction;
  • formalization (that is, display of information in a symbolical look);
  • analogy;
  • modeling;
  • idealization;
  • deduction;
  • induction.

Application in rational knowledge only of theoretical methods does not give objective reflection of the studied phenomenon, and only builds a certain abstract model.

Theoretical and empirical methods of rational knowledge are possible in unity and complementarity.

In a broader sense methods as approaches understand as the general direction and a way of the solution of certain specific objectives (for example, a structurally functional method, phenomenological, cultural and historical, formalistic, pragmasemantichesky, hermeneutical, etc.).

Philosophical methods of knowledge are extremely general approaches, concern them metaphysical and dialectic. Each science or area of knowledge applies the methods and forms of rational knowledge (or conditionally rational). In a categorial conceptual framework of different areas of knowledge any given methods of knowledge (cognition) can carry private names that for them does not cancel effectiveness of this classification.

Author: «MirrorInfo» Dream Team