Quite often in the mornings or in the evening it is possible to see the people who are engaged in walking. There is a set of types of walking: usual, sports, improving and also walking with sticks. In this article we will in detail consider what types of walking, their characteristic and also advantage and harm which they can bring to a human body happen.
Influence on a human body
Technology of human walking is called the double pendulum. During advance the leg which leaves the earth does the movement (shakes) from a hip forward. It is the first movement of pendulum. Then the leg adjoins a heel to the earth and is rolled on a sock - it is the returnable movement of pendulum. The movement of both legs is coordinated so that one or other leg always are in contact with the earth. Walking differs in it from run — in run there is a ballistic phase where both legs of the runner are airborne.
Whether you know? According to the estimates of scientists, at the beginning of the last century the ordinary person for life covered on foot the distance to 75 thousand kilometers. For our contemporaries pedestrian course of life was reduced almost by a third, its length is equal to 24 thousand kilometers.
The mankind puts into practice many types of walking (sports, improving, medical, Scandinavian and other), and all of them are very useful to health.
Occupations walking during even the minimum period from thirty to sixty minutes a day, five days a week, considerably reduce risks for health and chance of developing of oncological diseases, diabetes of type 2, cardiological diseases, anxiety disorders and a depression.
The expected life expectancy increases even at the people having obesity or high blood pressure. Walking also improves health of bones, especially strengthening femurs and also reduces the level of cholesterol of lipoproteins of the low density (LDL) in an organism and raises useful cholesterol of lipoproteins of the high density (LPVP).
Important! Scientific research showed that regular walking can also help to prevent developing of the acquired weak-mindedness and Alzheimer's disease.
Regular pedestrian trainings reduce risk of developing of such diseases:
- coronary heart disease;
- high blood pressure;
- intestines cancer;
The general impact of walking on a human body:
- increases force and endurance;
- trains and develops body muscles;
- strengthens joints of the lower extremities that is prevention of arthritis;
- promotes weight control;
- reduces arterial blood pressure;
- considerably improves a condition of cardiovascular and digestive systems;
- increases the volume of lungs;
- increases life expectancy;
- reduces a stress;
- improves memory;
- concentrates attention;
- increases abilities to training;
- increases life expectancy;
- improves mood.
As it is possible to go differently, some types of this physical education demand enough big expenses of energy from athletes that can badly affect the state of health of certain people. It is possible to carry patients to risk group:
- with cardiological diseases;
- the vessels having diseases;
- after the had heart attacks or strokes;
- with high arterial blood pressure;
- at any exacerbation of chronic diseases;
- with ophthalmologic problems (glaucoma);
- with a big weight;
- with a pulmonary disease.
Important! With above-mentioned diseases it is contraindicated to people to be engaged even in walking on the place therefore any physical activities have to be discussed with the attending physician.
- If occupations are irregular, or the person makes foot walks only on smooth asphalt, in the course of the training not all muscles take part, so, blood does not come to some muscles. It becomes the reason of increase in warm loading, and as a result — developing of diseases. The most known of them is the varicosity. To prevent varicosity, you go on an uneven surface (on cobble-stones, pebble, stone blocks). Such humpbacked route is excellent prevention of hypertensive diseases.
- Pains when walking can develop in lumbar department, in hips or in calves of legs. Such trouble can occur in case during walk of people holds the wrong bearing, has big excess weight, sets too high speed or is put in inconvenient footwear.
Types of walking
Walking is divided into several subspecies:
- Normal or usual — inherent in all people, but, nevertheless, well influencing metabolism and also on vessels and warm activity. Normal pedestrian speed promotes full-fledged load of lungs.
- Fast or high-speed — such movement positively influences development of muscles as this type of pedestrian occupations assumes movement by small steps. Fast movement perfectly suits the people who had a heart attack, but not throwing sport.
- For improvement — it is possible to be engaged in such version both in the evening, and in the morning, daily 30–60 minutes. These occupations do not demand high physical activities, but lighten the mood and a tone, increase working capacity.
Important! At improving walking it is desirable not to talk not to bring down breath and also it is necessary to control a warm rhythm. Normal pulse on improving pedestrian occupations — 95 beats per minute.
Technology of walking
Technology of movement differently influences work of various groups of muscles:
- Slowly, with a rift from a sock to a heel — strengthens gastrocnemius muscles and muscles of a basin. Also stomach muscles participate in the movement. Moving, it is necessary to hold the correct rack: the hands bent in elbows are before a breast, knees are straightened, the stomach is pulled in.
- The movement on heels of legs or on tiptoe — the lower extremities straightened at the movement on heels — toes should not touch a floor surface. To the contrary, when walking on heel toes constantly keep on weight. Such technique strengthens muscles: buttocks, back, calves and also neck. This way of movement removes deposits of fat and adjusts a figure.
- Walking with highly raised legs — it tightens and strengthens buttocks and gastrocnemius muscles. At the movement the knee is bent and highly rises then toes, and then a heel adjoin to the earth at first. Moving, the athlete keeps up head lifted, hands are bent before a breast, a walking rhythm — vigorous.
- Wider a step — this technique demands smooth and not fast movement, at the same time hands and legs have to work synchronously. The rift a sock heel has to be made without sharpness, the fluid movement. Application of this method involves almost all groups of muscles and also gradually, with experience, the athlete improves coordination of movements. Stretching of a step becomes gradually, on each next occupation so that not to injure sural muscles.
- The movement by an added and crossover step — brings muscles of calves and buttocks to the working condition, and application of this technique at fast speed promotes disposal of excess weight. It is recommended to move in such ways serially.
- Step attacks forward in semi-squat — act as burner of fat on hips, in a waist and a stomach. Doing a step attack, the athlete leans on a leg sole completely, at the same time the main muscular work is performed by muscles of legs. The technique perfectly suits the people inclined to a varicosity and persons interested to get rid of cellulitis on hips.
- Walking by a back forward — a method for correction of the wrong bearing. The athlete begins performance of the movement with a sock then it is smoothly rolled on a heel. The unusual way complicates coordination of movements a little, but further favorably affects gait of the person.
- Rise on steps up — the technique of the movement orders to transfer body weight and to lean on a sock of one foot to do the following push by other leg. Muscles of calves, a basin and hips participate in work.
- Walking in squat and in semi-squat — the movement happens at the straightened back, legs bent in knees, and hands laid on hips. In semi-squat the athlete begins the movement with a sock, in full squat — leans on all foot.
- Gymnastic walking — the athlete moves a wide step, completely leaning on a sole of legs.
Whether you know? The world's largest multi-day pedestrian action is the International four-day march of Nijmegen in the Netherlands. The homeland of this movement is the city of Nijmegen, the first event is held in 1916. Depending on age group and category of health, pedestrians have to pass 30, 40 or 50 kilometers every day within four days.
Improving walking — at this type of people moves already with a speed from 6 to 7 kilometers per hour. During the movement at the pedestrian the pulse becomes more often, the movement of blood in a blood system accelerates and the power consumption increases.
Muscles of a coxofemoral joint and ankle participate in the movement. Lungs are more stoutly filled with oxygen as improving walking is an aerobic training, it also improves a tone of muscles. Blood vessels and a cardiac muscle become stronger, there is a combustion of excess fat. Physicians recommend to walk at such speed within 30 minutes or hour. One more kind of improving walking — walk on foot. Usually beginners begin quite so, especially if their physical shape is not too good (a long break in occupations, the suffered injuries or diseases). Walking, pedestrians move moderately, their speed does not exceed one and a half or two kilometers per hour. For an example: such speed allows during the movement quietly, without having been out of breath, to talk.
Learn, than fast walking is useful.
Sports walking assumes that the pedestrian moves with a speed not less than 7 kilometers per hour, and professional athletes hold speed not less than 15 km/h, at the movement applying specially developed technical movements.
This version belongs to track and field athletics Olympic sports. The difference of sports walking from other types that one of the athlete's legs constantly contacts to soil (essential difference from run), and the lower extremity which is in process of the movement ahead remains straightened. The sports style of improving walks is suitable only for physically developed people, it is quite difficult for beginners.
We recommend to learn, than walking on a ladder is useful.
Intraspecific sports distinctions:
- 20-kilometer — a distance for athletes men's and female, for test of the athlete for endurance;
- men's walking on a distance in 50 kilometers;
- overcoming distance on 400, 10,000 and 20,000 meters;
- competitions at a distance in 200 meters and 5 kilometers.
The Scandinavian walking or Nordic walking is a type of physical activity which is carried out by means of the long emphasis similar to ski sticks which is specially developed for pedestrians. In comparison with usual walking, the Scandinavian walking assumes an emphasis on a basic stick at each step and differs in bigger intensity. At the Scandinavian walking the energy consumption by an organism increases by 46% in comparison with walking without sticks. Advantage of the Scandinavian walking:
- stimulation of a healthy lifestyle;
- development of tricepses and bicepses;
- development of a humeral and abdominal press;
- constant load on back muscles;
- participation in process of cardiac muscles that leads to significant increase in speed of a warm rhythm.
Whether you know? In the Moscow parks, such as Kuzminki, Philly and park of the 850 anniversary of Moscow, classes the Scandinavian walking for elderly people constantly are. These occupations are absolutely free, available for all comers and are supervised by the instructor.
The Scandinavian walking is divided into two currents: occupations with telescopic sticks and with support of the fixed length.
- Sticks for the Scandinavian walking with the fixed length — their length usually varies from 100 to 130 cm, with a step to 5 cm between these two numbers. Upon purchase length of sticks is selected under growth of the consumer. Admirers of the fixed sticks consider that they it is easier on weight, stronger, it is more convenient at jumps or rounds of obstacles and also vibrate at blow about the earth, than adjustable sticks less.
- Sticks for the Scandinavian walking with an adjustable length — at them are sections which can be extended to extend a support, or to press that to reduce it. The adjustable stick can be adjusted easily to individually necessary length. Such support can consist of two or three parts, it is convenient to take them in a travel and it is simpler to pack into a backpack or a suitcase.
Learn in more detail about technology of the Scandinavian walking.
Power walking demands that the engaged person surely focused on this type of activity. The point of power walking is reflected in a color palette where degree of the spent energy is defined by the represented color, that is the color is warmer (yellow, orange, red, green), the more energy is consumed by the athlete's organism.
Beginning to go, the person has to say mentally the name of the chosen color and visualize as the color wave passes on a body, from heels to the top and in the opposite direction. Usually power pedestrian walk begins with visualization of cold color, further gradually flowing to a warm palette of shades. Experts claim that the athlete who is engaged in power walking physically feels influence of each new shade and its energy. At power walks it is impossible to forget that they need to devote daily not less than 30 minutes and also to pay attention to move correctly, with a good respiratory rhythm and control of frequency of blows of heart. It is impossible to allow developing of short wind at all. Classes are at a pedestrian speed from 6 to 7 kilometers for an hour, that is one kilometer will be passed in 15 minutes.
We advise to learn how many calories are burned by walking on the place.
Recommendations for efficiency of walking
Useful tips to the people who are engaged in walking:
- Regularity of a training — to pass from 10,000 steps daily or to make a week not less than five crosswalks, duration of half an hour to an hour. Such device as a pedometer will help to control quantity of steps.
- Gradual accumulation of rate of occupations and their duration — the first occupation should not exceed half an hour, and the athlete has to move during passing of a route at not too fast speed. Usual movement on foot is not enough, approximate speed is determined that the athlete will be able to conduct on the run a conversation, but will not be able to sing at all. Without preparation to pass to movement with a speed of 7-6 km/h, that is to very fast pace, it is undesirable as at the same time there is very big load of an unprepared cardiovascular system.
- Warm-up before occupations — faster rate of movement always has to be followed by warm-up which will help to be warmed to muscles. For this purpose the athlete moves several minutes slowly, it will help his muscles and joints to be prepared for a training.
- Time for occupations — is the best of all to go in the mornings, before meal. Occupations most effectively promote burning of calories. If you have no free time in the mornings, for occupations it is possible to choose any convenient time. At any speed it is the best of all to carry out improving and sports pedestrian walks in a couple of hours after a breakfast (or before it), a lunch or a dinner.
- Comfortable footwear and clothes — footwear is very important at occupations foot walks and run (criteria for selection of comfortable footwear for occupations are given below). The clothes can be any; the main thing that in it the athlete felt conveniently and did not experience a heat or cold.
- The route — if is not present an opportunity to give classes at stadium, or you prefer walk on the area, then it is desirable to lay future route mentally. Such foresight will save the athlete from impassable obstacles and sudden injuries. Roads can be chosen as different, their complexity depends on an ultimate goal of occupations, that is the athlete when passing a difficult or simple route will spend more or less energy.
- The athlete should remember always that circulation at any speed remains physical activity on an organism. Therefore, being engaged, it is necessary to control the pulse.
Whether you know? That the person step by step became more and more healthy physically and mentally, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommends to people to take daily not less than 10,000 steps that corresponds to distance from 6.3 to 7.3 kilometers.
Important about sports shoes
Producers give the best design and technology of the footwear intended for run while for walkers the footwear is done first of all attractive externally. To define whether this walking footwear approaches, it is useful to remember three main qualities of footwear for walkers:
- Flexible — sports shoes has to be bent and twisted freely. If footwear too rigid, at the pedestrian can occur numbness of fingers, spasms of a gastrocnemius muscle, or other problems with health.
- Flat — walking footwear has to have rather flat heel though about it it is impossible to judge by its appearance. In footwear there can be high differences between a heel and a sock. For the pedestrian who is the most suitable (in shoes or sneakers) heel height less than 8 millimeters is.
- Soft heel — as pedestrians at first hit against soil a heel, they do not need a firm heel. The soft and low heel gives to footwear additional stabilization properties. Footwear with a rigid heel is useful only for walking on uneven and firm surfaces.
Calculation of optimum loading for the pedestrian
Calculation happens on a formula: the maximum value of pulse during walk minus age of the athlete, the received result is multiplied by coefficient 0.65. The total figure of calculations will also be necessary value of the resolved loadings. After 10 minutes after walking the pulse of the athlete has to calm down and accept value which was before walk. Let's consider on an example: the athlete is fifty years old, at his age the pulse should not increase higher than 110 blows in one minute. And for the 35-year-old athlete 120 blows in one minute will be norm.
The person can worry about own health for this reason many people play sports. One of mass and popular sports are pedestrian walks which can be carried out in various technicians and with various speed. Perfectly equal paths of stadiums are optional to walking, these sports with success can play both on sidewalks, and on country roads.