Adults sometimes do not even think that they operate in the speech with mathematical concepts. They quietly speak about the area of the apartment or land plot, even without thinking that to the child it can be unclear. Meanwhile, the concept of the area is required to the child when studying geometry, physics, geography and some other sciences.
It is required to you
- - white paper;
- - color paper;
- - pencil;
- - ruler;
- - fabric:
- - furniture;
- - seasonal dacha;
- - household goods.
- - garden stock.
1. Teach the child to measure different objects. If process does not attract him on itself, think up practical tasks or create game situations. For example, suggest it to find out whether will pass a table which you are going to take out there long ago in a country gate. For this purpose it is necessary to know the sizes of a table and a gate. Explain that the zero mark has to coincide with a corner of a table and with the termination of the column limiting a gate. Suggest the child to write down results and to compare them. He will make it with ease if he is already able to consider.
2. Ask your assistant whether there is enough place for a table in that corner where you decided to put it. Tell that for this purpose it is necessary to know the area of the table and the place allocated for it at the dacha. Do you already know one size, but whether it is enough of it? Most likely, the child himself also will understand that it is necessary to know not only length, but also table width. Suggest it to measure it and to write down result.
3. Suggest the child to draw in the room on a floor the site where there will be a table. Let he will make it usual chalk. As a result at you the rectangle which occupies on a floor the same space, as a table will turn out. Explain that the area is what is in the drawn line. It can be counted.
4. Show how the area is considered. For this purpose it is necessary to divide each party into identical pieces — for example, on 1 cm. It it is possible to present or cut out just the same square from a squared paper. Show to the pupil the easiest way of calculation of the area of a square or a rectangle. For this purpose it is necessary to multiply lengths of its parties. If the figure not too big, the child can check result, having counted small small squares.
5. Explain that you measured length and width by a usual ruler or a roulette. Draw the attention of the child that divisions are put through 1 cm there. You measured by a ruler with just the same divisions also subject width. You divided the turned-out figure into small small squares on 1 cm. Such small square is called square centimeter. There are still square decimeters, meters and kilometers. So far to the child there will be enough these names.
6. To explain what is the area, it is possible also on other objects. For example, tell the child that you want to sew a scarf of a certain size, but do not know whether there will be enough piece of fabric which remained from a dress. Suggest the child to draw the strip corresponding to the scarf sizes on paper. What in lines, is called the area. Ask your assistant to cut out a strip and to impose it on fabric. Explain how to count the area without pattern.
7. Use didactic games. Cut out from cardboard a rectangle, and from color paper — several smaller geometrical figures. Suggest the child to answer whether it is possible to place on a big card them all or only a part. A condition of such game exercise has to be the fact that figures cannot be tried on, and everything should be defined in advance. Suggest the child to measure them, and then to determine the area which each figure will occupy on a card.