Emergence of new concepts and terms – the natural process accompanying vigorous activity of the person. Enrichment of vocabulary with new words happens constantly. All changes happening in public life find the reflection and in language.
Vocabulary is designed to reflect reality and to give names to objects, properties and the phenomena. As the name the basic purpose of language consists. Vocabulary in itself – a complex system, a part of the general language system. One of its layers are scientific terms.
What is the term
The word "term" comes from Latin terminus – "limit", "border". Mean the word or a phrase designating some concept from the field of science, the equipment or art by "term". Unlike the words of the general vocabulary, often multiple-valued and emotionally charged, terms are deprived of an expression, are unambiguous and characteristic of strictly certain scope of application.
As terms in different languages look
In science the tendency to unification of a system of terms in the same industry prevails. There are more and more internatsionalizm. Thus between scientific concepts of different languages the unambiguous compliance necessary for implementation of international interaction is formed.
The vast majority of scientific terms is under construction on the basis of Latin and Greek words.
New terms: from where do they undertake?
The language stock continuously is replenished with new designations. Any new phenomenon, discovery or an invention receives an own name. At the same time there are either new words, or former gain other value.
With the advent of new terminology the emergence and development of any young science is always interfaced.
Terms, as well as any other words, submit to word-formation, grammatical and other language rules. They are created by a terminologization of words of the general vocabulary, direct loan from other languages or tracing of foreign-language terms. The semantic terminoobrazovaniye does not change a word form, but adjusts its value or function. At the same time semantic communications between similar events, the facts or the phenomena are carried out. Literary metaphors and metonymies have a similar associative basis also. For example, "a wing of a bird" – "a plane wing", "a nose of the person" – "a teapot nose". Terms and public words are capable to pass each other. Shirokoupotrebimy special terms can gradually take root into everyday life and become elements of everyday language. In process of distribution they cease to be perceived as terms and, receiving the wide address, densely grow into vocabulary. Direct loan is a full copying of the term at its translation from other languages. At word-formation tracing the foreign word is translated pomorfemno: so, "insect" is a tracing-paper from Latin insectum (in – "on", sectum - "sekomy"), "semiconductor" – from the English semiconductor (semi - "floor", conductor – "conductor").