The person always asked questions of life and that it he. A huge number of scientists tried to answer, but the secret about living organisms was not solved. Here and today the molecular biology is one of the most relevant sciences worldwide.
Theory of evolution of living organisms
Charles Darwin, the developer of the theory about evolution of living organisms, nevertheless could not give the answer to a question of how there is a fixing of changes in structure and functions of an organism of posterity. The book by Darwin was published when in the Czech Republic Gregor Mendel already conducted new experiments which conclusions became the beginning of further development of science about heredity.
In Germany at the same time the scientist-zoologist Augustus Veysman who managed to prove that some properties of parents devolving directly depend on a possibility of transfer the first a certain substance worked. As Weismann considered, this substance disappeared in chromosomes.
The American scientist Thomas Morgan also put a huge number of experiments. It and his colleagues issued the main postulates of the theory of chromosomal heredity.
As discovered DNA
The biochemist Misher in 1869 emitted the substance having properties of a certain acid. Then the scientist-chemist by the name of Levin could prove that as a part of the emitted acid there is a dezoksiriboza. This fact also gave the name to molecule DNA – deoxyribonucleic acid. Levin also identified four nitrogenous bases which formed structure of a molecule. In the 1950th year the biochemist Chargaf added Levin's conclusions when received results of tests which showed that in the molecule DNA having four reasons, two of them were equal by the quantity to two others.
Structure of DNA
In 1953 scientists from Cambridge, Watson and Crick, declared that they opened structure of DNA. By them it was established that this molecule DNA - a spiral which consists of two chains which have the phosphatic and sugar basis. The sequence of the nitrogenous basis was defined. It was also the so-called code for transfer of genetic information. In the 1953rd year the scientists published article which was called "Molecular structure of nucleinic acids". Results of researches which showed that DNA really represents a double spiral are presented in this article. Discovery of such level was recognized by scientists of the whole world and became "starting exact" for further researches. In 1962 Watson and Crick got the Nobel Prize for the researches.