Characteristic and structure of potassium

Characteristic and structure of potassium

Chemistry quite interesting subject which studies chemical elements and their properties. One of such unique elements is potassium which conceals in itself(himself) a set of secrets and riddles. Not each of us knows that it faces it every day.

Element potassium and its designation

Potassium is a chemical element of the system of elements which is thought up by Dmitry Mendeleyev who is in the first group. It has atomic number 19 and the atomic mass equal of 39.098 g/mol. On the physical properties the element is metal of silver-white color. It is very plastic and fusible. Has characteristic metal gloss. Potassium is easily knifed and on hardness does not concede to a piece of hard cheese. Potassium consists of three isotopes: 39K, 41K, 40K. The two first connections are stable, and the third is considered rather weak, but at all this radioactive. The half-life period of the last connection is 1.32*109 years. Chemical element in chemistry is designated ""To"".In normal conditions potassium is in strong aggregate state. Temperature of melting of an element is equal 63 degrees what it is easy to achieve at usual heating. Temperature of boiling of an element much higher and is 761 degrees.

Structure of potassium and its physical and chemical properties

Chemical element is located in the fourth period therefore all its electrons will be located at four power levels. The power formula of an element looks as follows: + 19K: 2yo; 8yo; 8yo; 1yo. The graphic formula of an element looks as appropriate.

Proceeding from the electronic structure of an element, it is possible to draw a conclusion that potassium has valency equal to I. As in chemical reactions the element gives one electron from external power level, he shows recovery properties, getting oxidation level +1.

Thanks to the arrangement in Mendeleyev's table, one may say, that the restoring properties of potassium are expressed much stronger, than at Na, but is weaker, than at Rb. Such regularity is connected with increase in atomic diameter. Besides, potassium will be stronger, than calcium atom as at the external power level at calcium already two electrons and to tear off them much more difficult, than one.

Potassium on the chemical structure is simple substance with a metal crystal lattice and a metal chemical bond. Proceeding their it, one may say, that potassium easily reacts and very quickly is oxidized on air.

Reactions with simple substances

As it was already told, potassium very active element therefore very easily reacts with the substances surrounding it. If to leave a piece of potassium on air, it will mnovenno react with air. The element perfectly reacts with oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorus and halogens.

Oxidation reaction

Interaction of any elements with oxygen (O2) is called oxidation. As a result of reaction potassium oxide (II) is formed. As a result of process the intermediate connection a potassium oxygene is formed.


If to set fire to potassium or its connections, it is possible to observe violet color of a flame at a torch or a splinter. Thanks to it, such reaction is qualitative on potassium definition.

Halogenation reaction

Proceeding from with what of elements potassium reacts, reactions were called: iodination, fluoration, chlorination and bromination. These reactions are accession reactions as one connection is as a result formed. Respectively, chlorides, bromides, iodides and fluorides will be result of chemical reaction.

Reaction with nitrogen and phosphorus

Potassium reacts with N2 in the open air. As a result of burning, nitride of potassium which represents connection of dark green color is formed.

According to the same scheme potassium interacts with phosphorus.

Reaction with vodorodomv quality of one more example of reaction of accession it is possible to give reaction of potassium with hydrogen. As a result of chemical interaction, potassium hydride is formed.

Interaction with complex connections

Potassium is capable to react with acids, salts, the bases and oxides. With each of the listed connections potassium reacts on a miscellaneous.

Reaction with water

If to place a potassium piece in water it is possible to note impassioned chemical reaction. Potassium, in a literal sense, will provoke boiling process. As a result of reaction, alkali and pure hydrogen is formed.

Reaction with acid

In this case it is possible to call interaction with acids replacement reaction as potassium replaces hydrogene atoms from their connections. It is possible to give reaction of potassium with hydrochloric acid as an example. By the same principle potassium reacts with other inorganic acids.

Reaction with oxides

This reaction belongs to exchange reaction. If metal as a part of oxide is weaker, than potassium, then an element forces out it from connection, attaching oxygen.

Reaction with the bases

Reaction to the bases happens by the same principle, as interaction to oxides. Potassium is capable to react with connections in which the element is weaker, than he. As a result of this reaction, barium drops out in a deposit.

Reaction with salts

Chemical reaction with salts allows to receive pure metals without impurity. Potassium as strong reducer forces out weaker metal, attaching residue of salt to itself.

Interaction with organic compounds

Characteristic reaction of interaction of potassium with such connections is reaction with fats. Potassium forces out one of hydrogene atoms, forming stearate, palmitate or other connection and hydrogen.

Where use potassium

As well as any metal, potassium is very demanded in the industrial industry. Thanks to the strong recovery properties and high reactivity it is used in the following spheres:

  • as reagent in chemical industry;
  • alloys with high content of an element use for development of nuclear reactors;
  • cyanide of potassium is used on mines. There it is used as a chemical reactant for replacement of precious metals from ore.
  • is a basis for production of fertilizers;
  • average salt of potassium and coal acid is used in production of glass. It is actively used for crystal blowing, and production of high-precision optics.
  • potassium is one of the making cleaning substances and washing means;
  • chlorate of potassium is used for production of matches;
  • potassium chloride is used in the food industry as emulsifier;
  • stearate of this element is applied in soap manufacture. It is a basis for production of liquid soap.

Potassium role for a human body

As it was already told, potassium constantly is in close proximity to the person. Whether it be soap, salt or usual laundry detergent. However, it is necessary to tell that potassium plays an irreplaceable role not only in human life, but in normal functioning of its organism.

Potassium takes part in transfer between impulse neurons, thereby regulating nervous conductivity of cages. Together with Na ions, this element of a periodic system regulates water-salt exchange of all biological liquids of the person.

Gipokaliyemiya is very quickly heard from. Characteristic symptoms of deficiency of potassium are:

  • excess puffiness;
  • the increased irritability;
  • memory violation;
  • block of reactions;
  • increases the probability of developing of heart attacks and strokes.

However, not only the lack of potassium can provoke negative consequences for an organism. Its surplus also perniciously affects the person. Against the background of high concentration of potassium in an organism can develop erosion on walls of a small intestine.

To control potassium level in the organism, it is necessary to know in what products it contains in large numbers. It is possible to carry to them:

  • nuts (pine nuts, forest, filbert, cashew);
  • sea cabbage;
  • fruit (tangerines, sweet apples, melons, watermelons, bananas)
  • buckwheat and pearl barley;
  • potatoes;
  • onions and garlic.
  • eggs;
  • dairy products (milk, cheese, cream, sour cream).

The standard daily rate of consumption of potassium is 3-5 grams for the adult.

Author: «MirrorInfo» Dream Team