The atmosphere of Earth is called sometimes the fifth ocean. And just as the oceans consisting of water it is in the continuous movement. This movement is also called wind.
1. The main reason for emergence of winds — convection. Heated air rises up, and more close cold air is flown down on its place from all directions. Even idle time of a difference in the illumination of the neighboring sites of the area sometimes happens enough to cause a local breeze.
2. On the sea coasts the constant wind called a breeze blows. Because of the big thermal capacity of water the surface of the sea gets warm sunshine worse, than the Earth's surface therefore the breeze blows towards sushi at this time. At night, however, the sea surface which got warm in a day gives the saved-up heat therefore the night breeze is directed towards the sea.
3. In the Indian Ocean and the phenomenon similar to a breeze happens on the western coast of the Pacific Ocean in much bigger scales. Monsoons are the winds directed towards sushi in the summer and towards the ocean in the winter. Summer monsoons bear with themselves a large amount of moisture, cause pouring rains in tropical areas and can become the reason of floods.
4. Convection happens also in scales of all planet. Cold air from northern and southern poles continuously moves towards the equator heated by the sun. Because of rotation of Earth these planet-wide winds called trade winds are directed not directly from the North to the South, and kind of twirled on the West. Over continents the current of trade winds is broken because of roughnesses of a relief, but in oceans they are surprisingly constant.
5. Unlike oceans where currents are more or less constant, the directions of air flows in the atmosphere incessantly change. In particular, because of this movement periodically there are huge air whirlwinds in which center pressure or is lowered (then they are called cyclones), or is raised (in this case they are called anti-cyclones).
6. The cyclone causes on all the area damp cloudy weather with a small temperature difference. The anti-cyclone — opposite, brings dryness, a winter frost and a summer heat. Therefore studying these whirlwinds — a basis of the correct weather forecasting, and their opening can be considered the beginning of organized meteorology.