The plant of family of cruciferae family – mustard white – is extremely appreciated in truck farming as the siderat. It quickly sprouts, actively increases the weight (more than 400 kg of greens can be received from one hundred part) and is not afraid of cold weather.
Properties of mustard, as siderat
Mustard differs in high drought resistance, well adapts to any temperatures. Interest in mustard is caused by high content in its seeds and, first of all, green material of organic compounds (22%) and also nitrogen (0.71%), potassium (0.43%) and phosphorus (0.92%).
Besides, mustard excellent melliferous herb, during blossoming season attracts on the next cultures of insects pollinators. Also the plant is widely used as compound feed for animals.
After decomposition in the soil, mustard-siderat turns into digestible fertilizer, saturating the soil with organic chemistry and forming humus. Besides mustard suppresses growth of weeds. And thanks to availability of essential oils this plant revitalizes the soil and interferes with accumulation in it of wreckers and infections. Mustard serves as food for soil hearts, absorbs almost insoluble elements which are inaccessible to plants from soil, transfers them to readily available nutritious forms. This siderat well loosens, drains and structures the soil, increasing moisture capacity and aeration.
Crops of mustard
Mustard prefers easy, sandy soils, derno-podsolic, however well feels also on all others except heavy clay and saline soils. It is possible to sow culture in the spring and in the fall. In the spring – a month before landing of root crops and potatoes (in April), in the fall – after harvesting of root crops. The earlier to seed mustard, the it is less than probability of damage of its shoots by cruciferous flea beetles. You should not sow mustard before cabbage and as the predecessor of other representatives of cruciferae family as plants from one family are damaged by the general diseases and wreckers. Seeds at mustard of white mean value. At crops manually (without use of the seeder), it is necessary to fill densely them in the loosened soil and to close up rake. On the site in 10 hundred parts about 1.5 kg of seeds of white mustard will be required. The plant gives shoots quickly, for the third day. Mustard – culture hygrophilous, demands the greatest number of moisture during germination and during budding. It is one of the most frigostable siderat. Seeds of mustard ascend at +1 … 2 wasps, and young shoots easily transfer autumn or spring cold snap to - 5 wasps. In one and a half months after shoots siderat reaches 20-25 cm in height and it is time to mow and dig in its in soil. Processes of decomposition of the remains of mustard in the soil better come in the presence of moisture. Therefore if the fall (or spring) was droughty, watering or irrigation is necessary.