One of the first certificates saying about what is represented by a lightning was the picture of that place where the flash, made at the closed lock is visible. The picture shows that a lightning – the category passing on an identical way.
Primary lightning stroke
Process of formation of a lightning can be divided into primary blow and all others. It is proved by the fact that primary lightning stroke, unlike others, makes a way (channel) for electric discharge. There is it as follows. In the lower part of a cloud the powerful negative charge accumulates. The Earth's surface has a positive charge. Thus, the electrons lying at the bottom of a cloud under the influence of potential difference direct down.
This process does not give any flash of light yet. At some point they stop on several microseconds, and later continue the movement in other direction, making the way in life to the earth. Each such step with a stop forms step structure. When electrons reach the earth's surface, the channel, free for passing of electric charges, on which other electrons a huge stream direct down is formed.
The electrons which are near the Earth's surface the first leave the channel, forming behind themselves the positively charged place. To this place, nearby electrons direct. Thus, all negative electric charge leaves a cloud, forming the powerful electric stream directed to the earth. At this moment it is possible to see light flash, and after it to hear a thunder.
Repeated lightning strokes
After primary blow already formed the channel for passing of electrons, the repeated blow takes place on the same way. It is caused by the fact that electrons at primary blow ionizut air around themselves therefore for secondary electrons the carrying-out channel is already provided. Thus, secondary and subsequent lightning strokes happen without pauses and stops peculiar to primary blow. Often there are one-two blows, but it is quite often possible to notice how the lightning hits five-six times into the same place. Happens that the leading branch of a lightning begins to branch. It is possible in case electrons of primary channel open of themselves the different ways. In this case, if one of branches reaches the earth another much earlier, then the first paves to herself the way up and reaches the beginning of the second branch. At this moment the main branch empties non-core, and the observer has an impression that the second branch beats on the ground, but not the first. As a rule, somewhere in hundred meters from the soil the process of penetration of electrons becomes complicated a little. For example, if in the place of blow there is some high or pointed subject, then owing to formation of powerful electric field the category begins to rise already from the most this subject, without waiting for blow of electrons. Thus, electrons reach not the Earth's surface, and the counter category.