Many humanities address the nature and properties of consciousness of the person: psychology, sociology, linguistics. But there is also a discipline entirely devoted to this subject.
The French philosopher Edmund Gusserl at the beginning of the 20th century creates phenomenology, the discipline directed to studying the nature and properties of consciousness. The phenomenology means "the doctrine about phenomena", that is the phenomena given to the person in sensual contemplation. The phenomenology is directed to the bespredposylochny description of experience of the learning consciousness existing in the world of phenomena and allocation of its intrinsic lines.
Refusing creation of deductive systems and criticizing naturalism and psychologism in mastering of consciousness, the phenomenology places emphasis on the appeal to primary experience of the learning consciousness.
Thus, direct contemplation and a phenomenological reduction which are connected with release of consciousness from naturalistic installation become basic methods of phenomenology. The phenomenological science helps to comprehend an essence of things, but not the facts. So, a fenomenologa any given moral standard does not interest, interests him why it is norm.
Making a reduction, the phenomenology comes to a centralnym to property of consciousness – an intentionality. The intentionality is a property of orientation of consciousness on any subject. Human consciousness is always directed to something, that is it intentsionalno. The Intentsionalny analysis assumes disclosure of relevance in which objects are designed as semantic unities. Gusserl comes to a conclusion that existence of a subject depends on its importance for consciousness. Thus, the phenomenology sets the task of systematic studying types of intentsionalny experiences and also reductions of their structures to primary intensions.
Principles of phenomenology
The essence of phenomenological installation is that "I" reach the last point of view, imaginable for experience. Here "I" become the uninterested contemplator of myself, the natural and wordly part transcendental "I". In other words, the phenomenology comes to a concept of "true consciousness". So, basic provisions of phenomenology can be formulated as follows: - the true consciousness free with psychophysical experiences, there is a transcendental area in which the concreteness of the world is constituted; - any subject exists for true consciousness as the phenomenon constituted by it; - all experiences of true consciousness possess a reflexive component; - true consciousness it is transparent, clear and obvious to own reflection.