In terms of biology the space is the Wednesday absolutely hostile to the person. Conditions, suitable for human life, on planets known to us so far are not revealed too. For ensuring activity and work of astronauts in open space and on a surface of celestial bodies the space suit - difficult and knowledge-intensive overalls is intended for researchers of Space.
Types of space space suits
Three types of space space suits are at the moment created and tested in actual practice. These are rescue space suits, space suits for extravehicular activity and space suits for work on a surface of celestial bodies. The last type of space suits was used at flights to the Moon. The device of space suits depends on conditions of their use and what work astronauts should perform in these conditions.
Rescue space suit
Very first the rescue space suit was developed. It intends for protection of the astronaut at depressurization of the spaceship, change of composition of the atmosphere and temperature in the piloted compartments. Rescue space suits have removable gloves, and sometimes and the opening helmet. Such space suits are quickly put on and are most automated. When falling vernal pressure such space suit is automatically pressurized, a helmet is closed, the system of autonomous life support joins.
Space suit for work in outer space
Working in outer space, the astronaut has to be protected from influence of excess light radiation. Therefore, the space suit in this case has the covering reflecting light beams, and in a helmet the protective light filter is installed. The space suit for work in outer space does not need removable gloves and a helmet, it is put on all and entirely at once. But requirements to mobility of joints at such space suit raised, outside the ship the astronaut performs a certain work. This problem is solved with the help of the corrugated surfaces, hinges and tight bearings located in places of a bend of joints. Gloves of space suits for opened by space are very difficult, they provide even maintaining tactile sensitivity of fingers. Such space suits are supplied with both the rantsevy life support system, and radio station for communication, and even antimeteoric and radiation protection. The tight cover of these space suits most often double also differs in the increased durability.
Space suit for work on the Moon
The only celestial body which the person already visited is the Moon. The lunar space suit in general reminds a space suit for outer space, but it has also differences. And the main thing from them - footwear. Besides, on the Moon there is also a gravity that not only determines weight parameters of a space suit, but also demands its certain centering, otherwise the astronaut will not be able just to keep balance. Boots of a lunar space suit quite heavy. Durability of this space suit is increased too that preserves the astronaut against troubles in case of falling.
General device of a space suit
All space space suits have a tight cover and the system of providing the astronaut with oxygen, the system of absorption of carbon dioxide and vapors of water. Thermal insulation of a space suit is provided with a multilayered cover, and the system of heating or its cooling is usually melted in the form of tubes on which liquid heat carrier circulates. In a helmet of a space space suit there is a communication device and also the systems of giving of drinking water and (in need of) food. In a space suit there is also a system of sensors allowing to watch a physical condition of the astronaut. Thus, the space suit is not only "space clothes" but, in essence, the small individual spaceship ensuring activity and functioning of the person in space.